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The growth and development process of a baby within the womb starts with a single-cell zygote. Over the course of 40 weeks, the zygote will develop into an embryo, then a fetus, before becoming a fully developed baby. The stages of prenatal development psychology start from the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period to the time of the baby’s birth.

These stages of prenatal development psychology are usually divided into three stages that are: first trimester, the second trimester, and the third trimester. During the prenatal stage, the fetus undergoes several changes to mature and prepare for birth.

prenatal development psychology

In the prenatal development stage, the zygote develops into a series of stages. The three critical periods in prenatal development include the germinal stage, embryonic stage, and fetal stage.

What Happens Right After Conception?

The first 24 hours after fertilization are perhaps the most crucial in the formation of prenatal development. The fertilized egg starts to divide rapidly into many cells in the fallopian tube. It remains here for about three days after fertilization. At this stage, the fertilized egg is known as a blastocyte.

The blastocyte continues to pass through the fallopian tube up to the uterus. At the uterus, the blastocyte attaches itself to the endometrium, a process called implantation. However, before it implants itself, the blastocyte breaks free of its protective covering. As it makes contact with the endometrium, they exchange hormones that eventually helps the blastocyte to attach itself.

Some omen might witness spotting or slight bleeding during this period, which normally takes one or two days. However, there’s nothing to worry about. It’s a fairly normal experience. At this stage, the endometrium will become thicker as the cervix also seals itself using a plug of mucus.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Germinal Stage (Weeks 1 – 2)

Under normal circumstances, the female ovary releases one ovum each month, a process called ovulation. The released egg, ovum, moves to the fallopian tube, which guides the egg from the ovary towards the uterus, womb. Here’s where fertilization must occur. Past this stage, there’s very little chance that the egg can be fertilized.

Sperms ejaculated by the male during sexual intercourse, or introduced to the uterus through artificial insemination, makes its way to the fallopian tube. This process can take about ten hours after ejaculation. The sperm must then penetrate the outer membrane of the ovum called zona pellucida for fertilization to occur.

When even a single sperm penetrates the zona pellucida, several chemical reactions occur that allow only that particular sperm to penetrate. The genetic material of the egg and the sperm then combine and form a single cell. Thus, the zygote and the germinal stage commences. It’s one of the most crucial stages of prenatal development psychology.

Immediately after the formation of the zygote, it begins to divide rapidly into two identical cells, which divide further into four cells, into eight cells, and so on. The dividing cells start to move along the fallopian tube and into the uterus. Approximately sixty hours after fertilization, about sixteen cells will have formed into what’s called a morula. This process occurs while it’s still enclosed in the zona pellucida.

Implantation occurs about six days after conception as hormones secreted from the woman’s ovaries and chemicals secreted by the trophoblast start to prepare the uterine wall. First, the blastocyst will adhere to the uterine wall before moving into the uterine tissue. This marks the end of the germinal stage and start of the embryonic stage.

prenatal development psychology

Prenatal Development Psychology: The Embryonic Stage (Weeks 3 – 8)

The embryonic stage starts immediately after implantation and usually lasts for about eight weeks after conception. It’s one of the most critical stages of prenatal development psychology. The cells continue to divide rapidly as clusters of cells start to assume different functions, known as differentiation.

As the embryo continues to develop, it forms three distinct layers known as germ layers that include ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm.

Each germ layer will differentiate into different structures and tissues. The ectoderm, for instance, eventually forms the skin, hair, nails, brain, hair, nose, sinuses, nervous tissue and cells, anus, tooth enamel, mouth, and other tissues.

The mesoderm will ultimately develop into bones, muscles, heart tissue, reproductive organs, lymphatic tissues, lungs, and other tissues. Finally, the endoderm forms the bladder, the lining of the lungs, tongue, tonsils, digestive tract, and other organs.

The differentiation process occurs over a period of weeks as different structures and features form simultaneously. Some major events that occur during this stage include:

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 3

The brain starts to develop. Other structures that begin to develop at this stage include heart, blood cells, spinal cord, digestive system, and spinal cord

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 4

The bones, facial structures, presence of arm and leg buds, brain, nervous tissue. The heart begins to beat, as well.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 5

The eyes start to develop, the nose, lungs, kidneys, brain, nervous tissues, digestive tract, and heart which starts to form vales

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 6

The hands, feet, and digits start to develop. The brain, heart, and circulatory system also continue to develop

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 7

Hair follicles begin to develop. Other structures that develop at this stage also include eyelids, nipples, and sex organs. There’s also the first urine formation in the kidneys and evidence of brain waves

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 8

Internal organs are well developed by this stage as facial features start to become more distinct. The brain can also signal for muscles to move, external sex organs start to form, and the heart development ends.

By the end of the eighth week, all of the essential internal and external structures will have been formed. The embryo will now be referred to as a fetus.

Prenatal Development Psychology: The Fetal Stage (Weeks 9 – 40)

The fetal stage of development is always the most dramatic in prenatal development. It’s another one of the most important stages of prenatal development psychology. At the end of eight weeks from conception, the fetus will be approximately 3 centimeters in length and weight about 3 grams.

By the time the fetus is full-term at 38 – 40 weeks gestation, it may be 50 centimeters from crown to rump and weigh about 3.3 kilograms. Even though all the organs and systems were formed in the embryonic stage, they still continue to grow and develop during the fetal stage. Some of the major features that occur during the fetal development stage include:

prenatal development psychology

Prenatal Development Psychology: Weeks 9 – 12

The head will be approximately half the fetus’ size. It will reach approximately 8 cm in length from crown to rump. External features like the face, eyelids, neck, limbs, genitals, and digits are already well-formed. There should also be signs of teeth, the production of red blood cells begins in the liver, and the fetus can now make a fist.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Weeks 13 – 15

At this stage, the fetus will be about 15 centimeters in length. It will also have fine hair called lanugo that develops on its head. Other structures, such as the lungs, muscles, sweat glands, and bones, continue to develop. The fetus should also be able to swallow.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Weeks 16 – 20

The fetus should be about 20 centimeters in length at this stage. Lanugo will start to cover all of the fetus’ skin surfaces. Fat also begins to form under the skin as features like the finger and toenails, eyelashes, and eyebrows appear. The fetus also becomes more active. The mother can sometimes feel the fetus move.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Weeks 21 – 24

The fetus will be about 28.5 cm and weigh approximately 0.7. Hair also continues to grow on the head as the eyelashes and eyebrows finish forming. The eyes finish developing. The lungs continue to develop and air sac forms.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Weeks 25 – 28

The fetus should reach approximately 38 cm in length and weigh about 1.2 kg. The next couple of weeks will involve the formation of the brain and nervous system. The fetus will also gain more control over its movement like opening and closing its eyelids and other body functions. The lungs will have developed sufficiently enough that air breathing will be possible.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 29 – 32

The fetus should be approximately 38 – 43 cm in length and weigh about 2 kg. Fat deposits should also become more definite under the skin. The fetus’ lungs will still remain immature by this stage, but breathing movements can now begin. The bones should have developed by this stage, but not yet hardened enough.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Weeks 33 – 36

The fetus will have reached about 48 cm in length and weight between 2.6 and 3 kg. Body fat continues to increase at this stage as lanugo starts to disappear. The fingernails should be fully grown by this stage too. The fetus should have a much higher degree of control over its body functions.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Week 36 – 38

It will be considered full-term and reach between 48 and 53 centimeters in length. The lanugo will have mostly disappeared and replaced with much thicker hair on the head. The fingernails will have grown past the fetus’ fingertips. All organ systems should have grown and developed by this stage.

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Prenatal Development Psychology: Paternal Factors That Affect Conception

The father’s lifestyle and nutrition can also influence pregnancy outcomes significantly in several different ways. The pre-conception period marks another one of the most vital stages of prenatal development psychology. Several modifiable paternal factors can influence sperm quality and count, and consequently affect fertility.

These paternal factors affecting prenatal development could result from the use of alcohol, prescription drugs, recreational drugs, tobacco, infections, and environmental toxins. The father’s metabolic status is, therefore, critical in determining the viability of the sperms to fertilize the ovum.

Consequently, prospective fathers must be conscious of their nutrition and health and other underlying factors that can affect their ability to conceive. Remember, the health of any future offspring depends on the personal health and nutrition of both parents.

prenatal development psychology

Adverse Factors That Affect the Stages of Prenatal Development Psychology

Although the uterus provides protection, the fetus will still remain indirectly connected to the outside via its mother. As such, factors linked to its mother can also harm it. Some of these factors may include:

  • Poor nutrition
  • Smoking
  • Using alcohol
  • Ingesting toxins like lead
  • Using certain prescriptions and other over-the-counter drugs
  • Illnesses like AIDs, syphilis, cholera, German measles, mumps, severe flu, and smallpox
  • Using recreational drugs such as sedatives, narcotics, and cocaine
  • X-rays and other forms of radiation

These are some of the most adverse maternal factors affecting prenatal development and can severely harm the fetus.

Common Problems During Stages of Prenatal Development Psychology

Some of the most common issues that may occur during prenatal development may include:

Prenatal Development Psychology: Congenital Abnormalities

These abnormalities occur as a result of physical malformations and developmental delays. They often affect different parts of the body and may occur as a result of a small mutation or damage to the cells’ genetic materials. These are more commonly referred to as genetic factors affecting prenatal development.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Maternally Derived Abnormalities

As aforementioned, the age, nutritional status, health status, and environment of the mother are closely tied to the embryo or fetus growing in the uterus. Some examples may include:

  • Age – studies show that babies born to mothers aged between seventeen and thirty-five are usually healthier compared to those born to older mothers.
  • Health status – in some instances, the mother may pass bacterial or viral infections to the fetus, such as HIV.
  • Nutritional status – generally, pregnant women need a balanced diet. A deficiency of some minerals in the mother’s food may lead to complications in some stages of prenatal development psychology.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Prematurity

Prematurity is perhaps one of the most common factors affecting prenatal development today. Fortunately, advances in medical care have now made it possible for many babies born prematurely to survive. The earlier the gestational age, the higher the chance of death or other medical complications.

Whether or not a premature infant survives ultimately depends on its gestation age. These are:

  • 21 weeks or less: 0% chance survival rate
  • 22 weeks: 0-10% survival rate
  • 23 weeks: 10-35% survival rate
  • 24 weeks: 40-70% survival rate
  • 25 weeks: 50-80% survival rate
  • 26 weeks: 80-90% survival rate
  • 27 weeks: greater than 90% survival rate

Psychological Perspective On Lifespan Development

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Lifespan development is the study of the change that an individual undergoes, from their time of conception to the point they die, considering the physiological, physical, cognitive, psychosocial, language development, and their social influence on this process. This process determines what is of more consequence to the human being’s experience, between nature and nurture.

The various underlying principles for this study include: Development is lifelong, in that the process of change tends to dominate the human experience. Second is the principle of multidirectional development that says that development occurs in various dimensions of human existence, across psychosocial, cognitive, and physical. Development is also multi contextual and depends on normative age-graded, normative history-graded, and non-normative life influences.

The individual’s socioeconomic status also has a significant influence on their human experience and how it influences their development throughout their lifetime, with poverty presenting critical challenges such as poor health, stress, higher-infancy mortality rate, and poor conditions for cognitive development (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

The concept of age is studied by chronological age, determined by how long an individual has been alive and the biological age, determined by the rate at which their bodies age. Psychological age is determined by the individual’s capacity to adapt to their chronological age psychosocially. Social development is determined by social is determined by the perception of age in their respective society.

Therefore, this paper will take an in-depth analysis of an individual’s development from their conception, toddlerhood, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, early adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood, and finally, death within the restriction of the scientific method.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth

Heredity represents the nature that contributes to human development, determined by the specific nucleotides sequence and the protein-making recipes. The average human cell has forty-six chromosomes, twenty-three from each of the parents, in the cell nucleus, and through meiosis, other cells are created as the copy is through splitting. Genotype is the number of genes inherited by an individual, whereas phenotype is the expression of features due to genes.

However, it is essential to note that most traits of the individual are polygenetic, in that they are determined by several genes, in recessive and dominant patterns, in different magnitudes, incomplete domination takes place when the dominant gene fails to suppress the recessive (Valentine-French et al., 2019). Genetic disorders are in most cases linked to the dominant gene and are barely debilitating, for example, Huntington’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome.

On the other hand, recessive gene disorders tend to be relatively uncommon but more debilitating, for example, sickle cell syndrome. Chromosomal abnormalities may also arise when the individual has too many or few chromosomes, a primarily maternal trait.

Prenatal development is divided into germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods. The germinal period lasts for fourteen days, between conception and the time the fertilized egg gets implanted on the uterus lining. Although millions of sperms are produced during ejaculation, only one fertilizes the egg, penetrating its wall, after which the wall hardens, preventing the formation.

The fertilized egg then travels to the uterus through the top section of the fallopian tube and is called a zygote. Mitosis begins leading to the formation of one hundred cells over five days, during which the organism is referred to as a blastocyst. It consists of two cell groups, with the embryonic disk being the inner cell group that develops into an embryo. In contrast, the outer cell develops the trophoblastic that develops into the support system.

The blastocyst becomes an embryo after its implantation on the uterus lining and the blood vessel through the placenta, connecting the embryo to the mother, providing it with oxygen and nutrition. Its cells continue to differentiate in a bidirectional manner; the head-to-tail development, or the cephalocaudal development and proximodistal development, occurs outwards from the midline.

From the fourth week, the precursor to the heart begins pulsing, and the head develops, and it appears to have gills and a tail and tends to be very vulnerable to the mothers living conditions and habits. Teratogens describe the environmental factors that influence the occurrence of defects at birth.

The fetal period takes place between nine weeks after conception to the time they are born and involves various body parts, including the genitalia. Between the age of six and ten weeks of prenatal, the fetus becomes sensitive to sound and light as its senses begin. At twenty-four weeks, the fetus’ chances to survive outside the mother’s womb begin, which is the age of viability.

Between the seventh and the ninth month, the fetus is prepared for birth, and its muscles and lungs contract and expands (Valentine-French et al., 2019). It also has a layer of fat, which helps it regulate its temperature. The fetus’s brain development starts with cell differentiation during the third week. This involves the stem cells located at the neutral plate, whose differentiation facilitates brain formation.

Fetal development consists of the production, migration, and differentiation of neurons, all of which facilitate the formation of the organism’s brain. Neurogenesis involves the formation of neurons, a process that is completed during the fifth month. This involves the formation of gray matter, the neural network for forming the cells, which is the gray matter, whereas the white matter is the neural pathways.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Infancy and Childhood

The normal weight in the United States is between five and ten pounds and tends to be twenty inches in height. There is usually a five percent variability in their body weight as they feed and eliminate the waste. The infant undergoes dramatic changes in their physical appearance with the change in the head to the rest of the body, as the head is usually fifty percent of the body in the womb, which changes to 25 percent at childbirth.

Various conscious physical changes occur in the infant, with dendrites, which are brand extensions whose role is to collect information from other neurons. Through synaptic pruning, neuro-connections reduce as the strength of the remaining ones increases. This facilitates the child’s ability to master skills as it grows.

The central nervous system develops with the formations of myelin, which is a fatty tissue that forms around the neuron’s axon. The infant’s brain grows fast from 250 grams when the infant is born to 750 grams with one year postnatal. Most of the voluntary activities and thinking occur in the outlier of the brain (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

The cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each of which has four lobes, separated by fissures. The frontal lobe is responsible for thinking, planning, judgment, and memory and extends to the parietal lob facilitating information processing. Next to it is the occipital lobe, which facilitates visual processing, and the temporal lo is responsible for language and hearing.

Lateralization is the process through which different brain functions are localized on one side, a process that begins from the fetal and continues at infancy. Neuroplasticity is the chemical and physical change in the brain enhancing compensation for injuries and adaptation to the environment.

The infant tends to sleep for 16.5 hours per day, distributed over certain periods throughout the day. This time reduces over time, such that by the time they are two years old, it averages at 10 hours. The quality of the child’s sleep is influenced by various environmental conditions, key among them sleeping next to its parent.

Motor developments begin at childbirth and involve developing certain milestones, beginning with crawling (Patil et al., 2020). The infant also gains motor skills which involve the ability to manipulate objects and move their bodies. They also continue to develop gross motor skills that involve their ability to control their legs, arms, head, and torso.

The child’s sensory capacity improves significantly within the first year, as they tend to be barely sensitive at birth but develop their vision, hearing, pain and touch, smell, and intermodality. These developments can be measured by using habituation procedures that involve the decrease of responses to stimuli.

Nutrition plays a critical role in the infant’s development, and the ideal diet is the mother’s breast milk providing it with antibodies and nutrients. Solid foods can be introduced to the child something that is determined their ability to sit without the need for support, holding their head, showing interest in the food, signs of hunger after the child has been fed with breast milk and formula, and their ability to move the food to the back of their mouth and eventually to their throats.

As the infant matures, they tend to develop memory as they have infantile amnesia from the time they are born. They also develop language abilities, which are a system of developing the meaning of the world (Valentine-French et al., 2019). The various language components are morphemes, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics, whose development facilitates the child’s ability to communicate, vocalize intentionally, gesture, and understand language. They begin to talk as they make errors, with the first words being influenced by their cultural context.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Adolescence

This is the transition period from childhood to adulthood and lasts between the age of ten and eighteen years. Puberty, the physical changes are triggered by hormones, a process controlled by various distinct parts of the brain. The individual tends to be more autonomous as they redefine the relationship to their parents and develop autonomy.

This facilitates the development of problematic behavior through peer influence. Puberty is the age of sexual maturation and rapid growth and involves the growth of the extremities. They also tend to develop sexually as their physical, sexual characteristics change and their reproductive system matures, which involves the primary sex characteristics.

The secondary sexual characteristics involve sexual maturation, as their hair grows darker and thicker and their pubic hair grows. They may also develop acne, which are the unpleasant consequences of hormonal changes. These hormonal changes impact the child’s mental health, which has been proven to be consistent across cultures.

Gender role intensification occurs in adolescence, in which the boys develop an affinity towards athletic activity, whereas the girls gravitate towards roles that involve nurturing. The adolescent’s limbic system shifts towards peer interaction and the search for mobility. This determines individual decision-making, a function that is later controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

Sleep plays a critical role in the healthy development of an adolescent; however, their ability to get enough sleep reduces significantly due to socialization, work, school, and social media consumption of a significant proportion of their time. Adolescents tend to develop eating disorders which are 2.5 times more likely to affect women than men. Men have an extreme desire (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

These disorders are caused by the complex interaction between social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors and appear to run within families. They lead to consequences like weakness, fatigue, fainting, and dehydration.

The adolescent’s cognitive development involves the development of the ability to understand abstract principles without physical reference. These conceptual constructs involve morality, freedom, love, and beauty. Through trial and error, the teenager demonstrates hypothetical-deductive reasoning and systematic testing.

As the adolescent understand abstract possibility, they tend to be self-focused demonstrating egocentrism. This leads to the development of the imaginary audience, which is when those around him are concerned with their appearance. They also tend to develop personal fable, which believes that the individual is unique and invincible from harm. This leads to greater introspection, idealism, and even hypocrisy, influencing the adolescent to exhibit pseudorapidity.

As cognitive flexibility, working memory, and attention improve, adolescents cannot control their impulses, which lead to increased stress (Valentine-French et al., 2019). Deductive reasoning emerges, whereby the teenager gains the ability to conserve an overarching principle based on specific conclusions. Inductive reasoning involves the logical extension and application of a general principle in a hypothetical case.

Education plays a critical role in the individual’s cognitive development and is influenced by peers, gender, and their experience at schools. The concept of the self and self-esteem are critical concerns in adolescence, as they gradually learn to be more considerate to their peers and develop competence within their social circles. They also undergo a psychological moratorium, which is the teenager’s desire to commit to an identity.

They also experience identity confusion as they consistently explore various identities. This ends at identity achievement, whereby the adolescents engage in an identity. The multiple aspects of identity are religious, political, vocational, gender, ethnicity, and sexual identity.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Adulthood

After adolescence, which ends at the age of eighteen, the individual gets into emerging adulthood, which lasts between eighteen and twenty-five years. During this period, they have many options in the direction of the rest of their lives as they independently explore the world in determining the course of the rest of their lives.

It is, therefore, an age of identity exploration in that the individual wrestles with the identity question; thus, the period may be viewed as prolonged adolescence. It is also an age of instability, as the individual changes job residences and relationships. They also tend to focus on themselves and begin to view their parents as people, not just parents. This individual tends to feel in between, whereby they feel torn between teenage and adulthood.

The age of between 18 and 25 is an age of possibilities, whereby the individual develops optimism of the various directions their life can take. They tend to leverage the opportunities they have to gain independence and determine the direction of the development of the rest of their life. Their socioeconomic status is also a significant determinant of their emotional lives, with the low socioeconomic status being linked to negative emotions (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

In the social setting, parenthood and marriage are considered as entry into adulthood. Therefore the way the emerging adult lives their life, for example, their acceptance of responsibility, is a critical determinant of whether they become adults. Poor remuneration and unemployment are significant determinants of individual living arrangements, romantic and social life.

Human beings get into their physiological peak at the mid-twenties, which is within the emerging adult periods. Even though their weight and height may increase, their sensory abilities, reaction times, muscle strength, cardiac function, and motor skills reach maturation. Their lung capacity, strength, motor skills, and reproductive system are optimal at this age. The aging process begins during the period as the individual capabilities start to reduce from the optimal level.

Obesity is a critical problem that may be caused by the individual, genetic profile, and environment. The consequences include mental illness, low quality of life, stroke, type two diabetes, high blood pressure, and mortality.

During middle adulthood, the individual undergoes numerous developmental advances and losses. The physical changes related to the individual age can be attributed to biological factors such as oxidative damage and cellular and molecular changes, a concept known as primary aging. On the other hand, secondary aging is caused by poor diet and the lack of physical exercise.

The physical changes that occur during age include hair loss, wrinkling of the skin, loss of muscle mass, and reduced cardiovascular capabilities. The individual also undergoes various sensory degradation, for example, problems with their eyesight, such as reducing scotopic sensitivity. The individual also has reduced hearing capabilities, which is more prevalent and severe among men than women. Health concerns begin at this age as their risk for heart disease increases.

Aging during this period can be reduced by controlling weight through diet and exercise (Valentine-French et al., 2019). The individual gains skills and expertise during this age as they specialize their knowledge and skills and novice in aspects that fall outside of their spectrum of specialization. At this age, the individual is likely to undergo a middle-life crisis. They experience stress associated with their social relationships, spouses, and dependents, which can be regulated by addressing the problem, causing stress, and regulating the emotional aspect of the stress.

Prenatal Development Psychology: Geriatric

Late adulthood is the longest developmental stage, which has led to older adults being the fastest-growing demographic in the developed world; a phenomenon is known as the graying of the world linked to the increasing life expectancy in the world. This is the highest age that the members of the society reach, also known as the maximum lifespan.

There are gender differences in the maximum lifespan, whereby women have a longer lifespan than men. This is because men are more likely to have illnesses, such as bacterial infections, that tend to compromise their immune systems. Men also tend to live a relatively riskier lifestyle and do more dangerous jobs. The older adult demographic can be split into three, the young-old, the old-old, the oldest-old, and the centenarian, people above 100 years (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

The theories that attempt to explain aging can be split into two. The programmed theories suggest a set biological timetable for the individual’s lifespan, and the damage theories indicate that the environmental impact of the environmental factors leads to mortality. This has led to the exploration of the same genes that tend to limit longevity. Biological stress, such as metabolic stress, plays a critical role in aging individuals as the body continues to sustain life. Hormonal changes play a crucial role in the aging process.

The physical changes involved with the aging process include the changes in the body shape that can be attributed to lean tissue loss in the muscles, kidneys, and liver. The individual’s skin tends to thin, lose its elasticity, thus leading to the exaggerated gravitational impact on their skin. Their vision tends to decline due to problems such as dry eyes and presbyopia further. Their hearing deteriorates, thus recurring more intend and higher frequency sound for their years to detect.

The sense of taste tends to age well, as the first signs of taste sensory loss are deemed to begin at the age of sixty. Their sensitivity to pain and touch, on the other hand, continues to decline. Nutrition plays a critical role in reducing the impact of chronological age on the physical well-being of the individual by improving their mental health and boosting their energy levels and immune system (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

The prevalence of chronic illness tends to increase with age, which dictates that they continue receiving treatment across their lifetime. They include cardiovascular disease, cancer, heart disease, and arthritis. The brain function tends to reduce with age, leading to reduced cognitive abilities, which has been associated with reduced brain volume. Advances sleep pattern syndrome describes the increase in the need but ends up sleeping less.

This leads to the individual going to bed early and waking up early. These individuals are viewed as genderless and asexual, with sexual activity being perceived as an offense. They also have sexual problems, which can be associated with dementia, which is attributed to inappropriate sexual behavior, stroll leading to analysis, and erective dysfunction caused by diabetes

Prenatal Development Psychology: Death and Dying

Americans have an average life expectancy of 78.54 years, as men tend to die at 76.1 years, whereas women tend to die at 81.1 years. Death has two key aspects, name physical and social death. The individual with irreversible cessation of respiratory and circulatory functions correlates with the termination of the brain stem activities. Therefore, death is expected to be a process that occurs over a while.

Social death is the dehumanization and withdrawal from an individual who is terminally ill, which may involve ignoring them, leading to the individual withdrawing. The common causes of death in the United States include heart disease, cancer, accidents, chronic lower respiratory disease, suicide, and diabetes. Death of despair is caused by the decline in the social and economic well-being of the individual, something that may be liked suicide.

In the United States, sixty percent of death occurs in acute care, twenty percent at home, and twenty percent in nursing homes. An individual’s perception of death changes across their lifetime, with infants having no comprehension of death, which continues to early childhood. The awareness of the finality of death begins in late childhood, and they continue to develop an understanding, something that continues until adolescence (Valentine-French et al., 2019).

In early adulthood, the individual is more likely to begin developing anxiety and continues to rise until middle adulthood, whereas the fear of death is significantly reduced in late adulthood. Various forms of care can contribute to the individual’s care: namely curative care designed to overcome disease; palliative care which provides comfort and relief from pain; and hospice care, provided by healthcare personnel to terminally patients who need psychological and medical support.

Advanced care planning as the documentation about an individual end-of-life care tends to differ from one culture to another, whereby Western culture is more receptive to advanced care planning. In contrast, other cultures view it as detrimental to individual well-being and change. Euthanasia is the intentional ending of an individual’s life due to their severe disability and terminal illness. This can be achieved by intentionally causing their death by giving them a lethal dose of medication, and passive euthanasia, which involves the withdrawal of life support (Walker et al., 2020).

In conclusion, this paper has relayed the individual stages that individuals undergo across their lifetime from their inception birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, late adulthood, and death. Therefore, it is clear that the development of an individual involves a series of desirable changes, often associated with early life stages, and undesirable changes often related to later life stages.

However, the various positive changes continue to even at later life stages, for example, the accumulation of knowledge for an individual who is relatively healthy (Strout et al., 2017). It is also clear that healthy the maintenance of wellness, involving the intellectual, social, spiritual, emotional, and physical health with activities like exercise and a consistently healthy diet can help improve the quality of life across the individual lifespan.


Patil, D., Enquobahrie, D. A., Peckham, T., Seixas, N., & Hajat, A. (2020). Retrospective cohort study of the association between maternal employment precarity and infant low birth weight in women in the USA. BMJ open10(1), e029584.

Strout, K., Jemison, J., O’Brien, L., Wihry, D., & Waterman, T. (2017). GROW: Green organic vegetable gardens to promote older adult wellness: A feasibility study. Journal of community health nursing34(3), 115-125.

Valentine-French, S., Lally, M., & Lang, D. (2019). Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective Second Edition.

Walker, J. B., Roman-Muniz, I. N., & Edwards-Callaway, L. N. (2020). Timely Euthanasia in the United States Dairy Industry–Challenges and a Path Forward. Animals10(1), 71.

prenatal development psychology


These stages of prenatal development worksheet should help give you better insight into the stages of prenatal development psychology. With proper care, your baby’s prenatal development period should be smooth and without complications. is a Cheap and Reliable Paper Writing Service Where I Can Pay Someone To Do My Online Math Class!