With the level of development in our country, organizations may get numerous projects. However, some of these projects may be not be suitable. A goods project should involve minimal risks but have high profits as well as recognition. In their work, Ahmad and Haq (2016) point out that benefit measurement methods are the most common.

**Benefit/Cost Ratio**

This is the ratio between the present value cash inflows and the cash outflows of a given project. The cost of completing a project is compared to the present value of the expected future benefits. The project with the highest cost benefit ratio is selected.

**Benefit/Cost Ratio **Advantages

- This project selection method is very simple to apply and thus simplifies complex business decisions.
- This method provides an objective way of comparing projects thus eliminating the emotionally made decisions.
- This project selection method also helps companies estimate the net benefits of a project.
- Finally, it helps make accurate decisions because it is based on facts.

**Benefit/Cost Ratio **Disadvantages

- It is inaccurate in that it uses the approximated costs and benefits.
- It increases the subjectivity of non- monetary costs which at times are quite substantial.
- The present values may be wrong especially when the wrong discounting tare is applied.

**Payback analysis**

Here, the objective is finding out how long it would take a project to return the amount invested. We find ratio of cash out with an average per period of cash in. The project with the shortest payback period is selected.

**Payback Analysis **Advantages

- It is simple to calculate.
- This project selection method is risk focused as it helps find out how quickly money invested in a given project can be recovered.

**Payback Analysis **Disadvantages

- This project selection method does not take into account the time value of money.
- It also does not take into account that cash inflows continue beyond the payback period

**The Net Present Value (NPV)**

This is the difference between the present value of cash inflow and the present value of the cash outflow of a project. Only the projects with a positive NPV are viable. In case the several have positive NPVs, the one with the highest value of is selected. Chrisman (2008) say that this project selection method measures the magnitude of returns of a given project.

### NPV Advantages

- This project selection method puts into consideration the concept of time value of money.
- Using this project selection method, one can tell whether a n investment will create value for the investor
- It also puts into consideration the cost of capital and the risk involved in a given project

**The Internal Rate of Return (IRR)**

This is the rate of return at which the present value of cash outflows equal that of cash inflows. In other words it is that interest rate at which the net present value of a project is equal to zero.

### IRR Advantages

- It is simple and easy to understand.
- It also recognizes the time value of money.
- It is an indicator of the efficiency of a given project.

**IRR **Disadvantages

- It cannot be used to choose between mutually exclusive projects.
- It also assumes that reinvestment of cash flows in projects with equal interest rate which is not true.
- Finally it does not consider the cost of capital thus cannot be used to compare projects of different durations.

**Opportunity Cost**

Spiller (2011) said term opportunity cost as the cost of foregoing other project when a give project is chosen. The project with the least opportunity cost should be picked.

**Opportunity Cost **Advantages

- It causes one to be aware of lost an opportunity which is the reality in project selection.
- It allows one to compare the relative prices and benefits of various projects.

**Opportunity Cost **Disadvantages

- This project selection method is time consuming. It takes managers a lot of time to compare the opportunity cost of different projects.
- Despite its usefulness this method is not accounted for by company accounts.

**The Project Selection Method I Choose**

In selecting the planed upgrade to electrical equipment project, I used the Net Present Value method. I estimated the future value of the cash inflows of various project and compared them to the present value of costs. Quite a number of my options had a positive NPV so I picked the one with the highest NPV.

**My Strengths and Suitability for the Project I Selected**

As Flannes (2003) says in his work, there are various attributes that are common evident in successful managers. In myself reflection I realized that I too have them. This will help in the success of the planed electrical equipment project. They include:

- I have successful created an inclusive vision of the project at hand. Therefore, I lead competently and within the stipulated period of time.
- I am a good communicator and can easily connect with people. With this ability I will lead my subordinates easily as well as ask for direction s from my superiors easily too.
- I am capable in that am competent in the area that my project is based. This will help me solve any problem that comes my way in the course of the project.
- I stay calm under stress. Bearing in mind the fact that my project is quite demanding and may require long working hours, I can work efficiently and remain focused for as long as am required.
- I am a team player. It is obvious that my project will require a team in its implementation. I can play well along with my teammates and together we will achieve the objectives set.

**My Weaknesses and How I Plan to Improve on Them**

Despite my numerous strengths, just like all other human beings I too have weaknesses. They include:

- I at times make unrealistic estimations of resources, cost and timeframes. In their work Essay (2013) they say that this is quite common among a number of project managers. I adjust my estimations, I will ask for help from my colleagues on how realistic my estimations are.
- I cannot handle bureaucracy in work places. In my opinion it is the biggest hindrance to progress. However this is the reality in most if not all big organizations. I therefore will work on my diplomatic skill.
- My project lacks international experience. None of my teammates have worked for a time before. This is making our point of view quite narrow. This problem can be solved by creating a vacancy for someone with international experience.

**References**

- Ahmad, B., & Haq, I. (2016). Project Selection Techniques, Relevance & Applications:
*ResearchGate*. Islamabad, Pakistan. - Chrisman, J. (2008), Net Present Value:
*Methods of Project Selection*. New York USA. - Essays, UK. (November 2013). The Strengths And Weaknesses Of Project Management Management Essay.
- Flannes, S. (2003). Effective People Skills for the Project Manager:
*Planning, Development and Support.*Aokland, USA. - Spiller, S. (2011). Opportunity Cost Consideration: Chicago Journal. Chicago, USA.

## Case Study Question

### PhD-level Case Study Question

A company is considering several potential projects, but must choose only one to invest in. Using a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) framework, evaluate the potential benefits and drawbacks of each project and recommend the best project selection method for the company to use.

### Answer

In order to evaluate the potential benefits and drawbacks of each project and recommend the best project selection method for the company to use, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) framework can be applied. This framework involves identifying and evaluating the relevant criteria for the decision, such as costs, benefits, and risks, and then using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze the data and make a recommendation.

One MCDM method that can be used in this case is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This method involves creating a hierarchy of criteria and sub-criteria, and then evaluating the relative importance of each criterion using pairwise comparisons. The criteria for this case study could include financial performance, operational efficiency, technology risk, and social impact.

The financial performance criterion would include the costs and benefits of each project, such as the upfront costs, labor savings, and potential increase in revenue. Using financial analysis methods, such as net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period, the company can estimate the financial impact of each project.

The operational efficiency criterion would include the potential increase in production capacity and quality, as well as the potential reduction in lead time and inventory costs. To evaluate this criterion, the company can use operational performance metrics, such as production yield and throughput time.

The technology risk criterion would include the potential risks associated with each project, such as system failures, data security, and regulatory compliance. To evaluate this criterion, the company can use risk management techniques, such as hazard analysis and risk assessment.

The social impact criterion would include the potential impact of each project on the company’s employees, the community, and the environment. To evaluate this criterion, the company can use social impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment and stakeholder analysis.

After evaluating the criteria, the company can use the AHP method to determine the relative importance of each criterion and generate a final score for each project. Based on the results, the company can make a recommendation on which project to invest in.

In addition to the AHP, other MCDM methods like Electre and Promethee can also be used. The company should also consider conducting sensitivity analysis to evaluate how changes in the input data would affect the final results.

In terms of project selection method, it is important to note that each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, the Benefit/Cost Ratio method is simple to apply but may not take into account non-monetary costs. The Payback Analysis method is risk focused but does not take into account the time value of money. The Net Present Value (NPV) method takes into account the time value of money but does not consider the cost of capital. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) method recognizes the time value of money but assumes reinvestment of cash flows in projects with equal interest rate.

Therefore, the company should consider the specific goals and objectives of the projects and choose the method that best aligns with those goals. Additionally, the company should also consider using a combination of methods to get a more holistic view of the projects. For example, using both NPV and IRR method to evaluate the financial performance of a project, or combining both Benefit/Cost Ratio and Payback Analysis to evaluate the operational efficiency and risk.

Ultimately, the company should carefully evaluate the potential benefits and drawbacks of each project and each method, and make a final decision based on the results of the MCDM analysis.