Forensic Analysis Exploration Report: How Forensic Pathologists Determine the Time since Death with Nomography
Forensic pathology is a study that focuses on determining the cause of death through the examination of the corpse. This is used in the investigation for civil and criminal law cases and determining the corpse’s identity. It is therefore used after death and in the condition of the presence of the corpse. The autopsy is used to determine why the corpse died by collecting and examining tissue specimens to determine particular sources of evidence, such as asbestos in the lungs and gunpowder on a wound. Get legit paper writing services on Forensic Analysis Exploration Report
The toxicological analysis is conducted to determine whether the death was deliberate or accidental. Time since the death in forensic investigation is the length of time since the death of a human being, through the observation and analysis of the changes on the body. This is with considering factors like external environmental and physicochemical activities in the environment where the corpse lies.
The forensic pathologists have to look into the loss of pupillary, the depth of the sinking of eyes into the socket, the pale and grey coloring of the skin, and the loss of muscle elasticity and skin. Nomography is the graphical computation of formulas, a concept that was developed in the late 19th Century.
The Nomogram method can help determine the time of death based on the measurement of the corpse’s temperature relative to the temperature of the area. This forensic analysis exploration report shall focus on how forensic pathologists determine the time since death with nomography.
Forensic Pathology Current Literature
According to Potente et al. (2019), the nomogram method applies the linear model of the cooling of the body and thus is the gold standard for determining the time since death. Mechanical and electrical excitability of the post-mortem lividity, rigor mortis, and the iris. The decomposition formula is used to calculate the post-mortem interval; this is based on factors related to the decomposition of the body.
The nomogram method (NM) applies calculations and is applied in the crime scene. The correction factors (CF) are a critical part of nomography that facilitates non-standard cooling conditions.
According to Madea et al. (2019), when the body is in a supine position, considering thermal indifference on parts where there is no airflow. The researcher notes that the body temperature is not considered in the conventional nomograms. Yadav notes that graphical solutions are applied in conventional nomography and the application of the Henssge parameters (Yadav et al., 2019). The body weight correction factors and temperature are critical, and the errors are predictable and reproducible (Madea et al., 2019).
The systematic errors are not unidirectional with the consideration of different degrees in under and over calculation. The virtual body weight and the input round with a conventional nomogram were performed. The graphical solution is created to reduce errors.
The nomograph ambient and rectal temperature is something that is a critical aspect of the nomogram. A compass is used the increase the precision of inputs (Potente et al., 2019). They were considering the environmental factors in the environment, which is critical for the time since death.
This is applicable between a few hours to several days post mortem. Madea et al. (2019) note that environmental factors such as the temperature, microenvironment, and geographical region where decomposition takes place. They often determine the decomposition rate of the body, thus critical in determining the time since death.
Cultural factors have to be considered in the post mortem, which may include embalming. Internally, the body parts tend to cool down since the blood is no longer flowing post mortem. For the first few hours, the body temperature reduces at one to two degrees hourly. Additionally, the flesh starts to stiffen from two to six hours, which tends to persist for up to eighty-four hours.
Forensic Pathology Discussion
One of the most important aspects of the nomograph method is that it deals with the tradeoff between ease of use and complexity. A nomogram is a two-dimensional graphical calculating device in the mathematical equation and functions. The nomogram has unique features, something that is critical for technological progress. The non-standard units include the courtroom and forensic routine, something that is practically necessary and permissible. Electronic calculations are used to increase the precision of the nomogram.
Another forensic osteology is another aspect of forensic pathology that goes beyond the flesh and considers the bones. This method is better than the nomogram method in cases where the flesh is decomposed. The methods used here include the gross, physical, and chemical examination of the bones. The post-mortem interval (PMI) is the human decomposition and the burial decomposition contents. This is something that is critical factors, in this case, include humidity and temperature.
The biochemical and chemical aspects are critical aspects of chemistry. The technological progress nomograph is conventional in personal preference. The nomogram method can complement other forensic methods such as forensic anthropology, which considers the insects attracted to the body, which facilitates the determination of time since death considering the life cycle (Giramé Rizzo, 2020).
The soft tissue tends to decompose faster than the hard tissue, and eventually, the body is left. Therefore, despite that the nomogram is not universally applicable and conclusive, other methods in forensic pathology can complement it.
Forensic Pathology Conclusions
In conclusion, this paper has shown the application of the nomogram method in forensic pathology. The study looked into the various aspects of forensic pathology and how they complement each other in determining the time since death. Therefore the cross-referencing of the results of each of the methods can be done to reduce the error.
The paper showed that environmental conditions tend to influence the calculation of the time since death using the nomogram method. The body weight can also be considered to determine the size of the organs that later decompose and the distance traveled by the blood.
Forensic Pathology Literature Cited
- Giramé Rizzo, L. (2020). Estimation of the early post-mortem interval: a multicentre comparison of the analysis of vitreous humour and the Henssge’s Nomogram method. A cross-sectional, correlational study.
- Madea, B., Ortmann, J., & Doberentz, E. (2019). Estimation of the time since death—Even methods with a low precision may be helpful in forensic casework. Forensic science international, 302, 109879.
- Potente, S., Kettner, M., & Ishikawa, T. (2019). Time since death nomographs implementing the nomogram, body weight adjusted correction factors, metric and imperial measurements. International journal of legal medicine, 133(2), 491-499.
- Yadav, J., Pandey, R. K., & Samadder, S. K. (2019). A Study to Evaluate the Reliability of “Henssge Nomogram” Method for Estimation of Time Since Death in Tropical Climate of Central India. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 13(2).