Native American and European Interactions: A Study of Freedom Perception
- Differences in freedom perception between Native Americans and Europeans
- Focus on the differences during their interactions
II. European Perception of Freedom
- Some Europeans viewed Native Americans as epitome of freedom
- Others saw them as barbarians without sophisticated societal structures
- Europeans viewed freedom as a spiritual matter based on Christianity
- Based on a social hierarchy
III. Native American Perception of Freedom
- Individual freedom linked to community kinship and spirituality
- Viewed themselves as individuals, disagreed with collective will
- Gave up individual liberty for social benefits such as security and belonging
IV. Differences between European and Native American Perception of Freedom during Interactions
- Europeans saw freedom as a spiritual quest, Native Americans for social benefits
- This led to disputes and misunderstandings
- Europeans found Native American notion of freedom unbearable but entertained it
- Differences in freedom perception played a significant role in interactions
- Understanding these differences is crucial in studying their interactions and impact on both societies.
How Native American and European ideas of freedom differ on the eve of contact
As perceived by the Europeans, the idea of freedom significantly differs from that held but the Native Americans, which had a significant impact before their contact. The Native American’s notion of liberty was the community’s freedom at large, while the Europeans believed in personal independence.
This led to a dispute between the two groups, as the Europeans thought of the Native Americans as savages who had no basic understanding of human rights and personal liberty, while the Native Americans thought of the Europeans are invading their territory. This paper focuses on the differences between the European and Native Americans ‘ perception of freedom.
Some Europeans viewed the Native American way of life as the ultimate freedom as they lived a life without the government. On the other hand, other Europeans viewed the Native Americans as barbaric as they had not to form sophisticated societal structures. Unlike the European settlers, the Native Americans, on the other hand, did not view freedom as the ability to have private possessions or to have personal liberty, something that made it possible for them to work as slaves in the European settler’s plantations. In that Native American way of life, individual freedom was closely associated with community kinship and spirituality (Foner).
The European perception of freedom is based on the political struggles of times and Greek literature and philosophy. While the Native Americans viewed liberty as a social or political issue, the Europeans viewed freedom as a spiritual matter. This is due to the insistence on freedom from sin in the Christian Religion. The Europeans, therefore, considered granting other people freedom as spiritual obedience.
Thus, the freedom in the European context is based on a social hierarchy, with the people at the highest point of the hierarchy being able to take those at the bottom. According to the Naïve American point of view, individuals were interdependent, and therefore, the concept of freedom was impossible to be applied on a personal basis (Foner).
Native Americans thought of themselves as individuals and disagreed with the concept of collective will. Their perception of freedom was unbearable according to the European way of life that was very structured and was viewed as savagely. Individuals in the Native American communities gave up their liberties to get kinship, security, and to get a sense of belonging in the respective organization.
The Indians’ notion of faith is based on self-determination and autonomy. On the other hand, the Europeans had to give up some of their liberty to another entity, the government, for example, by paying taxes to get other services.
In conclusion, there are significant differences between the European and Native Americans’ notion of view. Theses gave up a particular portion of their liberty with the expectation to get social benefits, while the European thought of having freedom as a spiritual quest. The Europeans, therefore, entertained the native American notion about liberty.
The main factors fueling the European Age of expansion
The Age of discovery and navigation of the Europe into the New World had a significant effect on world history. The Vikings landed in North America, becoming the First Europeans to be on the planet. The history of the western civilization is based on the advanced explores who shared their discoveries with the rest, inspiring hope for a better life and wealth creation strategy. For example, in the 15th Century, Christophe Columbus moves into the United States, expecting to immerse vast wealth. This paper looks into the Age of expansion in Europe and the key factors that lead to the phenomenon (Foner).
The factors that learn to the Age of Exploration in Europe can be summed up into three main determinants: national pride and glory, for example, in the French case, who looked forward to assimilating the native American into the French Culture. The European Nations also had limited economic resources and too on exploration as a chance to immerse wealth. Religion to play a part as the European missionaries looked to spread the ideas thought, which would only be achieved through the incredible voyage. The explorers were also motivated by other interests, such as fame, from discovering something to getting new land (Foner).
In Europe, the English were driven by their desire to control North America, something that had a significant impact on the power dynamics in Europe. The explorers were therefore sent in search of food, natural resources, and even trading opportunities. The colonies in North America presented an excellent source for raw material, European industries, and a market for the finished good. Therefore the early exploration and dominance of new land was an invaluable resource to Britain and other countries. The controlling New World was pivotal to the power dynamics in the continent.
The Portuguese’s o the other hand, had the advantage of their geographical location. The country heavily depends on the Atlantic Ocean as the primary medium of transport. Having been able to control Ceuta and African City, the French had the advantage of being the first European to explore Africa. Portugal also had information about the purpose of the voyage.
Another contributing factor was the Portuguese ability to tap and manage the resource. Spain was motivated to explore the new land due to their ease of accessing the New Land’s direct route, North America, and Africa. On the other hand, the French were interested in spreading their ideas that include Christianity and the French culture in general.
The rise of the slave trade in Africa led to affordable labor for the plantation owners. This made the demand for plantation land very important, which made exportation and incentivized approach. The Transatlantic trade presented the need for raw materials for European industries; thus, the Europeans needed new land to obtain the resource, incentivizing further land exploration. The competition between Protestantism and Catholicism also amplified the exploitation as each group looked forward to outdoing the other.
In conclusion, the Europeans explored new land throughout the planet, intending to spread their religion, which is Christianity. The missionaries were dedicated to spreading Christianity, which made them move to areas where the religion is not significant and teach the ideas to them. The understanding of the Europeans of the concept of freedom also facilitated their ability to control other populations. The accumulation of wealth was also an excellent motivation for the European Nations to invade the Africa and North America. The Spanish were heavily influence by their interest in trade to look for trade goods.
How equality became a more substantial component of American freedom after the Revolution
Equality led to the struggle Declaration of Independence, which is of significant impact on civilization’s well-being and the struggle for independence when all means are equal. The American colonies’ dream of equality occurred in three levels: the conflict over the kind of nation the United States should be. The struggle for national independence also significantly impacted the concept of equality, as all countries had to be in control over their territory and destiny. On the other hand, the Americans rejected the notion of fixed statues, patronage, and privilege (Foner).
The expansion of the United States’ political territory, when the Northern States conquered the Southern states, played a significant effect on the perception of the concept of equality in the united states. However, the men remained the family heads, and the wives had to submit to them. The slaves, on the other hand, could not be afforded freedom as they provided irreplaceable labor to the plantations, something the supported world trade and American significance on the global economy from the 15th Century. The political elite amplified the is due to freedom by relaying them directly to the citizenry, making them more aware of the ideas.
The Pennsylvania revolution too contributed significantly to the strength of the concept of equality in the United States. The Revolution involved a sizeable disorderly crowd that would be considered inferior. The attacks were made on the property, providing the people from the lower class, for example, artisans and indentured servants, to attack the property owned by the plantation owners, who were from the upper level. The attack provided an opportunity for the political leadership to spread the ideas of equality and the need for all means to be treated the same, regardless of their social status, for society’s benefit.
New constitutions in the states play a crucial role in the promoting the idea of equality in the America, as each state adopted a constitution that had no regard for the aristocracy and ensured that all the citizens had a hence of taking political leadership. The governments were established as a political system of representative democracy, where elected leaders made decisions on behalf of their citizenry.
The right to vote too propagates the ideas of equality in the United States. According to John Adams, equality and freedom are mutually exclusive, as a man without property lacks judgment. And the elimination of the property as a factor in life eliminated classism, which would lead to anarchy in the society. Additionally, New gave suffrage to its inhabitants, granting them the liberty to vote, but only the white men were considered inhabitants. The more people were allowed to vote, the more the perception of equality seems to be more vital (Foner).
The causes and significant results of the War of 1812
The Napoleon war and the French Revolution are among the most conspicuous factors that led to the instability that caused the War of 1812. The constant, persistent conflict between the British and French lead to the United States’ inability to establish trade with both of them. However, the American shipping prosperity encouraged trade between the United States, The French, and the Spanish Empire. On the other hand, the British mock the trade with the claim that free shipping would make commodities free. The War was led by Britain’s attempt to control trade between the United States and other empires worldwide (Foner).
Britain was involved in the Napoleon war in the 19th Century, and the Royal Navy attempted to cut off the supplies to the United States while the United States attempted to establish a blockade against the British. Therefore, Britain passed a law that requires all the neutral parties to obtain trading licenses before trading with the French or any of their colonies. The Royal Navy thought that the United States’ act of eliminating seamen and forcing them to work on the British’s behalf.
The Royal Navy provoked the United States by using impressment, intending to keep the ship’s crew. Allegedly the Royal Navy Ships transported the United States citizens to be part of the British military. Leopard on the United States Navy seizing four sailors and citizens, which the British government apologized for, ended up leading to a war. The United States President decided to use economic sanctions against Britain by banning all imports from Britain through the passing of the Embargo Act of 1807. The act affected the United States more adversely than it did on France and Britain (Foner).
The War of 1812 led to the British military’s withdrawal and conquering the Creeks in the Southern states. It was also established that there be arbitration on any future disputes involving the United States and Canada. The United States emerged victorious, with the North-Western regions being under the British government’s full control. Harrison was able to conquer Detroit, thus making the United States navy winning over the Royal Navy.
Attention was turned on taking over the North, with the British conquering the United States military and burning the White House. The War led to significant conflict between the United States and Britain and the Native Americans and Canadians struggling for self-governance. The War led to the destruction of the United States’ Federalist Party against the War deemed unpatriotic (Foner).
In conclusion, the War of 1812 was caused by economic decisions, whereby the United States imposed trade sanctions against Britain. The conflict was ultimately caused by Britain and France’s rivalry due to the earlier conflicts, and the United States been an ally. The United States ended up antagonizing the British. The War led to the creation of treaties that prevented such conflicts from occurring and based on modern-day civilization (Foner).
Native American and European interactions:
- Spain, England, and France struggled to control North America between 1500-1700, driven by different reasons and thus taking different approaches.
- English colonies had relatively more freedom while Spain and France had absolute power over their colonies.
- This paper compares and contrasts the English, Spanish and French colonies in their quests to control North America between 1500 and 1700.
Colonist’s Occupied Regions:
- England occupied Massachusetts and Virginia and spread Southwards along the coastline and into the interior.
- France occupied Quebec, Montreal, and Louisiana and established their trading posts as they explored the St Lawrence Valley.
- Spain expanded their territory to the South Western region, such as New Mexico, California, Florida, St. Augustine, and Santa Fe.
Criteria for Recruiting Population:
- English encouraged artisans, farmers, and even forced criminals and indentured servants to move into their colonies.
- French only allowed missionaries, traders, and Merchants, disallowing Protestants and peasants from emigrating.
- Spanish first allowed the missionaries and soldiers, and later encouraged traders and farmers to emigrate.
Extent of Government Control:
- English government allowed colonies to form local governments and collect taxes to remain loyal to the English crown.
- Spanish colonies had no right to form their laws and were governed by the Spanish King.
- French government had direct and exclusive control over the colonies, and the King had to approve all public gatherings.
- English colonies were ruled by a combination of Catholics and non-Catholics, with some valuing autocracy and Catholicism.
- Spanish colonies strictly adhered to Catholicism and were intolerant of Protestants.
- French colonies were controlled by the Catholic Church leadership.
- English colonies had diverse economic activities due to freedom of immigration, including trading, fishing, and farming.
- French colonies relied on agriculture and trade.
- Spanish colonies were predominantly based on trade, controlled by the Spanish military.
- English colonies had rapid population growth due to freedom of immigration.
- French colonies had slow population growth due to strict immigration policies.
- Spanish colonies had slow population growth due to the heavy presence of Spanish military and the hostility of Native Americans.
Native American and European Interactions:
- English were friendly to the natives and engaged in trade.
- French were friendly to the natives and attempted to assimilate them into French culture.
- Spanish suppressed the native communities, converted them into Christianity, and took them as slaves.
Spanish colonists were considered more civil:
- Spanish colonists took natives as slaves and made them work in mines and plantations.
- Spanish clergy attempted to destroy Native American’s religious beliefs and convert them into Christianity.
- The approach of the English, Spanish, and French colonies in North America varied based on the region they occupied and the nature of their governance.
Compare and contrast the colonies established by Spain, France, and England in the Americas from 1500-1700.
Spain, England, and France were the key players who struggled to control North America between the 1500 and 1700. The respective governments were driven by different reasons to control the continent, and thus they took different approaches to take control. This had a significant effect on the New World’s fate; for example, English colonies had relatively more freedom while Spain and France exacted absolute power on the their colonies due to their autocracy.
This resulted in circumstances like the English colonies having more population mas they encouraged immigration. All colonies, however, had to pay tribute to their respective governments. Having defeated Spain and France in the Indian and French War, England dominated North America, but Spain and France retained their national characteristics. This paper compares and contrasts the English, Spanish and French colonies in their quests to control North America between 1500 and 1700 (Foner).
England, Spain, and France occupied different regions of North America. English colonists started in Massachusetts and Virginia and began spreading Southwards along the coastline and into the interior. The French Colonies occupied Quebec, Montreal, and Louisiana in 1608, 1642, and late 1600 respectively, and established their trading posts as they explored the St Lawrence Valley.
On the other hand, the Spanish expanded their territory to the South Western region, for example, New Mexico, California, Florida, St. Augustine, and Santa Fe (Foner). These colonists also had different criteria for recruiting the population, For example, the English encouraged artisans and farmers to move into their colonies, and forced criminals and indentured servants encouraged other nationalities to move into English colonies.
On the other hand, the French had a more strict approach of selecting immigrants as they only allowed missionaries, traders, and Merchants into their and disallowed protestants and peasants from emigrating. The French did not allow immigrants of different nationalities to move into their territory. The Spanish first allowed the missionaries and soldiers, while the traders and farmers were encouraged to emigrate later (Foner).
The extent of government control on the colonist varied; for example, the English government allowed the colonies to form local governments and even collect taxes, hoping that they remain loyal to the English crown. The Spanish had the colonies on a tighter leash as the crown appointed their governors and viceroys, and the colonies had no right to for their laws as they were to be governed by the Spanish King. The French government, on the other hand, had direct and exclusive control over the colonies.
They were utterly subject to the French crown, in that the King has to approve all public gatherings within the French colonies. The colonists could not have representative governments and have no political right. In terms of religion, the English colonies were ruled by a combination of Catholics and non-Catholics, and most colonies like Pennsylvania allowed tolerance.
Simultaneously, some like Massachusetts, especially the Puritans, valued autocracy and adhered strictly to Catholicism and authoritarian leadership in religion. The Spanish colonies too strictly adhered to Catholicism and were intolerant of Protestants. The French colonies were controlled by the Catholic Church leadership, even though Protestantism had become dominant in France since the Mid-seventeenth Century. Therefore, it is clear that there was a similarity in religion in the French, Spanish and English colonies in North America (Foner).
The French, English and Spanish colonies’ economic activities depended on the region of the North American continent that they occupied and the nature of their governance. For example, the English colonies had a diversity of economic activities, as there was freedom of immigration. These activities include trading, fishing, and farming, thus produced a surplus of timber, tobacco, rice, and fish, which were exported, making it the main economic activity.
French colonies depended on agriculture and trade to support their economy, while Spanish colonies were predominantly based on trade, which was controlled by the Spanish military. English colonies had a rapid population growth due to the freedom of immigration that allowed most people to settle. For example, between 1627 and 1754, Virginia’s population increased from only one thousand to 1.5 million. The strict immigration policies in French colonies lead to slow population growth.
The French-controlled territory and stagnant population, for example, 5000 settlers in New France, 10000 in Louisiana, and a cumulative 40000 in all of the French territory within Canada. The Spanish controlled colonies had a slow population growth rate due to their heavy presence of the Spanish military in the region and the hostility of the Native American in the region. The three colonists dealt with the Native Americans differently; for example, the English were very friendly to the natives and engaged in trade.
The French colonies were friendly to the natives but tried to assimilate them and form alliances against the British military. On the other hand, the Spanish people suppressed the native communities by sending missionaries to convert them into Christianity while the military killed and possessed their property (Foner).
The Spanish colonists were considered more civil than those controlled by the French. In Spanish controlled colonies, the natives were taken as slaves and made to work in mines and plantations. The government had established an encomienda meant to control the Native Americans. The Spanish clergy was keener on destroying the Native American’s religious paraphilia to claim that it represented Paganism and converted them into Christianity.
On the other hand, the French attempted to permanently settle in North America and coexist and trade alongside the Native Americans. This is because the French had realized that the Native Americans were more productive when there was a peaceful coexistence. They attempted to assimilate them into the French culture and had adopted some of the Native American customs and even clothing. However, the French and Indian War is a case of a dispute between the two groups, for example, when the French interfered in the Huron’s dispute against the Iroquois.
However, this War is seen as inevitable because if the French territory were sparsely populated, there would have been a war between the Native Americans and the Spanish Settlers. Due to the differences in the French Spanish and English colonies’ governance, the English colonies had the most robust economy due to the freedom allowed in the region. The Spanish territory was moderately robust in terms of economic activities and had farming and mining as their main economic activities. On the other hand, the French territories were sparsely populated due to the autocracy practiced (Foner).
In conclusion, the French, Spanish, and English governments treated colonies impacted the New World at large. The English colonies’ population increased rapidly, which made them more powerful than the French and Spanish colonies. This made the English military conquer the French and Spanish people and gain control of North America. The ideas of free trade too as propagated in the English-controlled territory, also increased throughout the 16th and 18th Centuries. This has significantly to the ideas of freedom as perceived in the world today, where there are democracy and capitalism, unlike the alternative, which is autocracy as propagated by the French (Foner).
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History: Seagull Fourth Edition. Vol. 1. WW Norton & Company, 2013.