Where APA is primarily used in the USA, Harvard referencing is the most well used referencing style in the UK and Australia, and is encouraged for use with the humanities. We recommend our writers to settle it with the customers, which manual for Harvard referencing should be used in each specific case. While the common US formats like APA, MLA and Chicago are easily accessible at the Purdue OWL website and other reliable resources, we urge you to prompt the customers to provide you with the Harvard manuals they wish to be used. Otherwise, feel free to use the link to Harvard manual provided below.
The Harvard style does not have a manual and there are various versions that are followed. That is why we have worked out our own guide that we will all stick to in our company.
- Harvard is very similar to APA. Where APA is primarily used in the USA, Harvard referencing is the most well used referencing style in the UK and Australia, and is encouraged for use with the humanities.
- Like APA, Harvard presupposes using author name/date system when citing books, articles and other documents.
- Margins should be set at 1”.
- The font should be Times New Roman (Arial is also possible).
- Font size should be 12 pt.
- Text should be double-spaced.
- The header contains a short description of the title with the sequential page number and is placed flush left on each page.
- Harvard formatting requires a very specific title page.
- The header contains a short description of the title and a sequential page number (1). It should be present on each page.
e.g. If the title of the paper is ‘Colonization of Western Lands in the 17th century’, the header can be just ‘Colonization’.
- The header is placed flush right. Between the partial title and the number are exactly five spaces.
- About halfway down the page is the title of the paper, in CAPS.
- About three lines down the title is the student’s name, not in capital letters.
- Four lines down is the name of the course, and, on the line after that, the name of the professor. Next line is the name of the university (school), then the city and state where it is located (for the USA), and, finally the date.
Note: Be very attentive to the customer’s instructions. If the latter requires another format, follow it.
- The header of the first page should contain the page number 2.
- Like in APA, this page should begin with the title of the paper.
- It should be centered, not in CAPS, not bolded, not underlined or italicized.
- It should be in title case.
- Harvard is an ‘author/date’ system, so the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should be stated in the text and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
- You should provide a citation for each fact, summary, paraphrase, or quotation you use from an outside source. If you don’t do this, it is plagiarism.
- Unlike in APA, there is no comma between the author’s name and the year of publication in the in-text citation.
Note: In-text citations that are direct quotes should include the author’s/ authors’ name/s, the publication year, and page number/s.
- In-text citations are put just after the author or the author’s work is mentioned:
… a recent study (Smith 2009) has described ….
- If while paraphrasing the idea the author’s name is mentioned in the text, only the year of publication is included into parenthesis which directly follows.
According to Smith (2009), …
- If the author’s name is mentioned before he/she is quoted directly, the year of publication and the page number are included into parenthesis which directly follows
This statement is substantiated by Smith (2009, p.6) in his report…
- If the direct quotation is more than 30 words, it should be put in a free-standing block of lines. No quotation marks should be used. One should start the quotation from the new line, indented (in the same place one would begin a new paragraph). Each line which follows should be also indented as the first one. Double-spacing should be maintained. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
It was stated that:
If any similar qualitative research is to be undertaken in the future, then stringent controls should be put in place to ensure such statistical anomalies do not occur through lack of methodological rigor, particularly through corruption of data inadequately stored and processes (Mullane 2006, p.66).
Note: The actual quote can be in slightly smaller font to distinguish it from the surrounding text.
- When a print source has a corporate author, one may use the name of the corporation followed by the year for the in-text citation for the first time.
- If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
(World Trade Organization [WTO] 2000)
- When the author of the work is unknown, one should cite the source by its title.Titles of books are neither in quotation marks nor italicized in the parenthesis. However, they are italicized in the text. Titles of the chapters or articles are in quotation marks. Sentence case should be used for in-text citations.
(A history of Greece 1994)
- To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semicolon
… as has been discussed elsewhere (James 2014; Dewey 2015).
- To cite different sources of the same author and year, use letters ‘a’, ‘b’.
(Clark 2014a) (Clark 2014b)
- When the journal article is available only online and there is neither volume nor page numbers available, apart from the author’s name and the year, cite the title of the article and use the abbreviation “para.” followed by the paragraph number.
(Bustamante 2014, ‘Public library of Cincinnati’, para. 4).
Mind the use of commas in the in-text citation
- When you cite the entire website, use its title (the title is in the title case as a rule) and the year in the parenthesis.
(Australian Securities Exchange 2009)
- When you cite the webpage which contains no author, use first few words of the page title (in the sentence case) and the year in the parenthesis.
(Improve indigenous housing 2007)
- When you cite the webpage with no available year, mention the author’s name followed by the abbreviation ‘n.d.’
Reference to Sources
While referring to the title of a source within the paper and in the list of references, sentence case is used.
- As a rule, the entire website is in the title case both within the paper and in the list of references.
- The title of a journal is in the title case both within the paper and in the list of references (please, do not mix with the title of the article, which is in sentence case).
Reference to Author(s)
Please, remember how to refer to one or more authors in the text of the paper, in the parenthesis and in the list of references:
Number of AuthorsIn the text of the paperIn the parenthesisIn the Reference List
|One Author||Kent (2014) wrote that…||(Kent 2014)||Kent, JK 2014,…|
|Two-Three Authors||Kent, Bradly and James (2014)||(Kent, Bradly & James 2014)||Kent, JK, Bradly, MK & James, WK 2014,…|
|More than Three Authors||Kent et al. (2014)||(Kent et al. 2014)||Kent, JK, Bradly, MK, Smith, JT, Cooper, L.M. & James, WK 2014,|
Please, pay attention to the absence of periods in the the authors’ initials in the Reference List
Since there is no uniform system of headings for Harvard Style, we recommend to use the same set of norms applied for the APA papers.
- 1 level: Centered, Boldface, Title Case Headings
- 2 level: Left-aligned (= Flush left), Boldface, Title Case Heading
- 3 level: Indented, boldface, sentence case heading with a period. Begin the text after the period.
- 4 level: Indented, boldface, italicized, sentence case heading with a period. Begin the text after the period.
- 5 level: Indented, italicized, sentence case heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.
- The list of sources used in the paper should appear at the end of the paper.
- It should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay.
- It may be labelled ‘References’ or ‘Reference List’.
- The words ‘References’ or ‘Reference List’ should be centered at the top of the page (NOT bolded, not underlined, not italicized, not in quotation marks).
- If you name the list of sources ‘Reference List’, please, mind that both words begin with a capital letter.
- All lines after the first line of each entry in the list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin to maintain the hanging indentation.
- Double-space all entries.
- Authors’ names are inverted (last name first). Do not put periods with the authors’ initials.
- The titles of books and periodicals are italicized in the Reference List as a rule.
- The articles or the chapters are not italicized. Use quotation marks for them.
- Sentence case is used for all the sources except the entire websites and journal titles.
- For the online sources, the words ‘ Available from’ followed by a colon are used. After the colon, include the URL or the online source. After that, put a period and state the date of access in the square brackets. No punctuation is used inside the brackets.
- General Format for the book entry is:
Book Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s) Year of Publication. Title of book capitalized like a sentence (italicized), City of Publication: Publisher.
- General Format for the journal article entry is:
Article Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s) Year of Publication. ‘Article title capitalized like a sentence in quotation marks’, Journal Title in the title case (italicized), volume number, issue number after letters ‘no.’, pp. pages.
- General Format for the website:
The title of the Website, Year of Publication, The name of the source. Available from: < URL >. [Accessed Date of Access].
we do not provide information about how each type of source should be formatted in the References because you may see it HERE.
Let’s sum up how different types of sources should be formatted in Harvard. The following table summarises what font and case should be used for the longer works and for their parts in the text of the paper and in the Reference List.
Type of the SourceIn the textIn Reference List
|Book Title||italicized (but in the in-text quotations not italicized), sentence case||italicized, sentence case|
|Title of the Periodical||italicized, title case||italicized, title case|
|Book Chapter||not italicized, not in quotation marks, sentence case||not italicized, not in quotation marks, sentence case|
|Article in Periodical||not italicized, not in quotation marks, sentence case||not italicized, not in quotation marks, sentence case|
Basic Features of Harvard Style
- Like APA, Harvard presupposes using author name/date system when citing books, articles and other documents.
- The title page contains information about the title of the paper, the student’s name, the name of the course, the professor’s name, the name of the university (school), the city and state where it is located, and the date.
- The title of the paper is in CAPS on the title page and not in CAPS on the first page.
- There is a header on each page which contains a short description of the title and a sequential page number.
- Title case is used for the title of the paper (on the first page), Reference List, titles of periodicals and entire websites. In all other cases sentence case is commonly used.
- Headings are levelled like in APA. The title of the paper on the first page, the Reference List are not levelled. They are just centered, not bolded, in the title case.
- The authors’ names are inverted in the Reference List. The initials are used without periods.
- In the Reference List, the hanging indentation and alphabetical order of entries are maintained.
- For online sources, the words ‘Available from’ are used.
Harvard Formatting Style Sample
FATE OF THE WORLD UNDER DONALD TRUMP
The Fate of the World under Donald Trump
Donald Trump’s victory caught many by surprise. The billionaire president’s victory meant a lot to not only for the Americans but also to the world. During his campaigns, he made a couple promises on how his success as the president would help shape the world (Mestel. M, 2016, 19). Obama had warned voters that the world would not be safe under Trump’s rule. His promises to the world included: improve relations with Russia, tackle global warming, and renegotiate trade agreements and to increase tariffs on Chinese imports. Therefore, the paper focuses on the changes the world expects from Trump’s rule.
End of Free Trade
Trump’s trade policies would lead to a significant change in how America does business with the rest of the world. Since he won the elections, his focus has been on threatening companies, automobiles in particular. He has promised to impose a tariff of 35% on goods manufactured in Mexico. He has also threatened to scrap some of existing free trade agreements. This will affect the North American Free Trade Agreement between the US, Mexico, and Canada (Mestel. M, 2016, 34). He has further suggested withdrawing the US from the World Trade Organization.
Trump has expressed a conflicting opinion on climate change. He has been proposing to pull the US of out of the Paris plan agreement which it is legally bound for four years. Critics say his actions would cause other governments skeptical on the issue to cut down emissions contributing to global warming. His support to push forward with coal has been widely condemned globally.
Ties with Russia
Trump praised Russian President Vladimir Putin as a strong leader, during his campaigns. He further mentioned he would love to have a good relationship with him. He says he start off by trusting Putin which he warns it might not take long. He states that international sanctions on Russia could be lifted if they agreed on some things including the reduction of nuclear arms. US-Russia relations strained during Obama’s administration (Mattei. M, 2016, 48).It is a bilateral relationship where dynamics could change under Trump’s rule.
Iran Nuclear Concerns
Former President Obama made a historical understanding with Iran, which saw sanctions lifted the guarantee that it would not pursue nuclear weapons. However, President Trump has said that dismantling the deal would be his top priority. Iran is a major player in the Syrian conflict and a rival of Israel. Thus, getting rid of the deal would hugely impact the Middle East. Iran’s foreign minister has urged Trump to stay committed to the deal, suggesting that the US should respect the accord.
Nuclear Weapons in Asia
Major security questions have been raised over Trump’s presidency. Mr. Trump has singled out Japan and South Korea for relying too much on the US. He also said that they would benefit from having their nuclear arsenals. Additionally, Trump has a task to curb North Korea’s ambitions to develop its own nuclear weapons. He has gone ahead to state that a plan by North Korea to test long-range missiles will not happen (Mestel. M, 2016, 45).
With Mr. Trump as the president for the few months, we can already feel the impact. He has been on several interviews where he has talked about his plans for the world. We are yet to hear about the progress on the great Mexican walls he promised to build. Moreover, we expect more from Donald, during his first presidential term. (Whyton. W and Gebhardt. G, 2015, 44)
Mestel, R. (2016). How to trump group-think in a post-truth world. Nature.
Mattei, T. (2016). Trump, Obamacare, and the Market for “Lemons” Paradigm: Current Perspectives on the Future of U.S. Health Care. World Neurosurgery.
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