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The Four Methodologies of Neuroimaging

The Four Methodologies of Neuroimaging ppt

Neuroimaging involves using various techniques in imaging grain pharmacology, structure, and function of the nervous system. They tend to be relative to psychology, neuroscience, and medicine. The structure imaging tends to deal with the structuring of the nervous system, which functional imaging is used to diagnose metabolic lesions and disease (Moran & O’Shea, 2020). This paper will compare the various strengths and weaknesses of Event-related potential (ERP), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), and Positron emission tomographic (PET), along with the examples of cognitive processes.

The event-related potential is a methodology used to measure the brain response resulting in cognitive, motor, and specific sensory events. It is therefore stereotyped as a response to the stereotyped electrophysiological response to stimuli. It is therefore measured with the use of electroencephalography (EEG). It, therefore, reveals information on cognitive processes reflecting the global electrical activity of the brain.

It is essential to note that cognitive neuroscientists focus on the modulation of the brain’s response to particular tasks. It, therefore, requires the extraction of the evoked responses to the global EEG signal. The logical approach, in this case, involves the tracing of the liegd relative to external events. The alignment eliminates the electrical activities and the related event of interest (Moran & O’Shea, 2020).

The tiny signal is embedded in the ongoing EEG, triggering the stimulus and reflecting the sensory, cognitive, and motor events, thus leading to the event-related potential. Therefore, it provides essential tools to clinicians with the visual invocation in the diagnosis of multiple selerosso a disorder that leads to the demystification of the optical nerve with the electrical signal and the tracing of travel and the visual evocation in the time of appearance.

Auditory System

The auditory system leads to the compromise and the damaging of the processing areas with the localization of the auditory evoked responses with the characterization of the wave peak and the rise of neuronal activities with the particular anatomic areas in the ascending auditory system. This indicates the activities that tend to take place with a few milliseconds of sound. The localization of the claims tends to be based on the electrical recording of the scalp’s surface.

The early component of the sensory paths involves the neurogenerative with the inference and the time required to consider the relevant neuro signals to travel. The approach facilitates the relay of information that is often generated by the cortical structures. The ERP is often suited in the address of the question with time in the cognition of the localization and the production of the electrical events.

The attention tends to affect the stimulus in the process and the provision of indices and the decision to respond to the errors detected. This is in their cognition with the need for the individual neurons that tend to fire coherently. The coherent firing of the patterns of the brain involves frequencies of about ten times per second. The time-frequency analysis involves the amplitude and the two-dimensional signals, which take place over time.

The Strengths of the Event-related Potential

One of the advantages of the event-related potential is the relative measurement of the individual’s behavior. This is in the incorporation of the various in the making of the specific experimental manipulation. Additionally, the behavior measures the processing of the stimuli, where no behavioral changes are involved.

Another benefit of behavioral changes involves the measurement of the various processes where behavioral changes are not involved. This is something that can be attributed to the fact a large number of trials involve the accurate measurement of brain activity. One of the advantages of neurophysiological measurement is invasiveness, where the electrode is inserted in the brain in the exposition of humans, something that involves radiation.

Additionally, special and temporal resolution is another advantage of the event-related potential. It involves an excellent temporal resolution in recording the constrained sampling rate and the provision of feasible support that often the PET, fNIRS, and fMRI and the slow measurement of a BOLD response. The ERP is in the measurement of good temporal resolution using language research and processing. ERPs often have a good temporal resolution, which involves language research and processing at a fast pace.

The special resolution is often well suited in research questions the measure the neural activity in the measurement of the research questions. The individual words are recognized in about 0.5 seconds, for example, in the pronunciations/t/ and /d/. Additionally, the cost of the ERP is often cheaper relative to PET, fMRI, and MEG, something that involves the purchase and maintenance of the EEG system, something that makes it cheaper.

The temporal resolutions provide insight s to language processing, something that tends to unfold over time. The ERP is used in the working of the clinical population, which involves infants, children, and individuals with aphasia. The technique often enables researchers in the presentation of both spoken and written work.

The participants are often required to perform a task and assess the language comprehension, which appears in the middle of a sentence. Classic behavioral experiments often wait until the sentence is presented with the reliance on their memory. The cognitive processes involve the accurate determination of their effect and the overt response to the experimental manipulation of the stimulus.

The technique allows the collection of continuous data with the use of temporal resolution. In most language experiments, the sampling rate is defined in the language comprehension and the enabling of continuous online processing. The ERP enables the researchers to make conclusions that are involved in the relationships. Another effect involves the presentation of the participants with the example of semantic manipulation. The costs are often inexpensive in comparison to other techniques.

Drawbacks of EEG

The drawbacks of EEG research involve the large number of experimental trials which need a large number of stimuli in the presentation of the participants and the recording of meaningful interpretation. This number depends on the processing of the studies, something that involves at least 40 trials.

In the clinical setting, neurologists and physicians often use the flashing of the visual checkerboard stimulus, which involves the damage of the visual system. In healthy individuals, the stimulus involves eliciting a string response to the primary visual cortex located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain. The ERP components measure abnormalities that include ADHD, Parkinson’s disease., dementia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, head injuries, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, schizophrenia, and an autism spectrum disorder.

Another advantage of ERP is that it facilitates the specific measurement of neural measurement. It also has an excellent temporal resolution that is compared to the fMRI. The limitations of the event-related potential are that it often lacks the methodology’s standadisation, which makes the measurement difficult to measure and confirm the findings. Additionally, the extraneous variables and background noise facilitate eliminating something that is often easy to achieve.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging involves the exploitation of the increase in local blood in the active brain parts. This is identical with the traditional MRI, which involves the use of radio waves that cause the occilation of the hydrogen protons in the detection of low energy fields emitted in the orientation of the magnetic field made by the MRI machine.

The fMRI id often focused on the deoxygenation of the deoxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin. Deoxy hemoglobin is often weak where the magnetic field is present. The fMRI is used to measure the oxygenation to the deoxygenation of hemoglobin in BOLD, level-dependent, and blood oxygen. The oxygenated hemoglobin often surrounds the active brain tissues, which involves the intensive metabolic cost associated with neural function. The tissue is often unable to absorb the excess oxygen moderated when the blood flow is slow.

The radioactive tracers are injected into the same individuals and the repetition of the sessions. The possible performance of statistical analysis is something that involves one participant. The partial resolution is superior to the PET due to the high-resolution and the anatomical images involved with the application of scanners.

Event-Related Design Experiment

The event-related design experiment is different in that it involves temporal resolution and the ramifications of the study design. The participants are continuously engaged with the metabolic activities. The time requirement here must be involved with PET. The bloc design experiment involves integrating over a given block of time where the participant performs a given task.

The block design experiment involves the recording of neural activities. The block design experiment is integrated over a given period and the stimulation of the performed task. The recorded activity patterns are compared in the performance of the task. The time requirement correlates with the activation patterns of the particular cognitive processes. The use of block design involves the comparison between control and experimental scanning phases.

Experimental Trial

The experimental trial is often linked with the specific events that occur at the beginning of the movement. The metabolic change involved in a given event involves detecting the background and the hemodynamic responses of the brain. The clear signal is acquired with the repetition of the events and the improvement of the experimental design due to control and experimental trials.

It is important to note that the participant’s confidence is facilitated by the attentional state and the likelihood of observing differences in the processing of the demands in a generic manner and the changes in the overall arousal (Hari et al., 2018). Therefore, the block design facilitates the detection of small effects and the involvement of a range of experimental setups with fMRI. Event-related fMRI involves choosing the experimenter and the combination of the different ways of scanning completed.

The Four Methodologies of Neuroimaging

Advantages of fMRI

One of the advantages of fMRI is that it does not involve the use of radiation, such as computerized tomography, x-rays, and positional emission tomography scans. In this case, no virtual risks are involved, and brain function is evaluated safely, effectively, and noninvasively. Additionally, they are easy to use and involve the production of high resolution with details ranging at 1 millimeter. Furthermore, fMRIs tend to be objective relative to traditional questionnaires.

On the other hand, it involves a significantly high cost, although it only captures a clear image where the people scanned are completely still. The researcher also fails to understand how and fMRI works. Additionally, fMRI tends to look at the way blood flows in the brain and the activities involved with the individual neuron, which is a critical mental function (Hari et al., 2018). The brain areas are made of thousands of individual neurons, with each of them being unique. The various areas of the brain tend to light up with the representation of the various functions that make brain activity hard to scan.

The fMRI scans are often difficult to interpret, something that was depicted in the UCLA study, whereby the activities in the amygdala were tested, for example, concerning disgust and anxiety, while swinging voters as depicted as republican, Independent, Republican, and Democrat. The elicited activities are often associated with connectedness, desire, and reword.

fMRI often involves the use of high-tech phrenology. The 19th Century pseudo-science involves claiming the individual’s character, something that is based on the shape of their skull (Caballero-Gaudes & Reynolds, 2017). They are therefore more accurate and scientific with the improvement in the accurate focus on individual neurons. The electric activities in the neurons are often providing a more precise and complete image of the activities taking place in the human brain.

Another limitation of fMRI is that it does not facilitate the measurement of brain activity, with the electricity being the brain’s language. The synaptic junction is often impulses related by specific chemicals in the modulation of the electrical activity to the next cell. The snapshots tend to involve long exposure photographs, thus leading to temporal resolution (Caballero-Gaudes & Reynolds, 2017).

The hemodynamic response tends to impose a limitation on the measurement of time precision. fMRI tends to provide correlational evidence, which is indicated by the lighting up of give areas of the brain during mental functions. The impairment of the behavior can be observed with inference to the various targeted areas that involve the performance of particular tasks. The neural recordings are made in the provision of particular activities with the unfolding of normal behavior.

Positron emission tomographic (PET)

Positron emission tomographic (PET) is used in clinical and research settings. Multiple factors contribute to the rising demand, the wide range of variety, the clinical application of oncology, and reimbursement of the 3rd party payers. PET neuroimaging involves the application of neurodegenerative disorder, neuropsychiatric conditions, and movement disorder. The examination of the metabolism involves the accumulation of proteins, the binding of receptors, and enzyme activities.

PET brain imaging is used in the clinical setting and thus is understood as a diagnostic tool. PET scans involve the application of various types of imaging during particular procedures using a single machine. Technological screening involves revealing critical information on the forms and functions of organs and cells in the human body. The nuclear imaging technique involves using radioactive tracers in the injection and absorption into the body tissue.

The scan is used to show that given areas of the brain are used to detect disease in the brain. The scans provide information on the absorption of oxygen and blood, which travels in the body, and sugar processing. Computer tomography involves utilizing various angles, something that is often processed by a computer. The scans provide precise and accurate images relative to x-rays. They, therefore, reveal information on cells, their function, and their structure.

The benefits of positron emission involve the fact that it has diagnostic clarity, which is well illustrated in the combination of reap, which tends to be twice the diagnostic. The increased activity in the body facilitates the production of detailed tissue images within the body. It tends to be relatively painless because it measures both metabolic and anatomy functions within the given patient’s body. A scan tends to be completed within 30 minutes, in addition to it being easy and non-disruptive.

The initial injection with the use of radioactive material facilitates downtime in the aftermath (Patel et al., 2019). Some of the Positron emission tomographic (PET) disadvantages involve the fact that expectant mothers may put their unborn child in danger due to exposure to the radioactive tracers. However, the amount of radiation is negligible. Diabetes patients may undergo scans under particular precaution, which requires injecting the mixture into the patient.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) involves functional neuroimaging in the recording of the magnetic fields and the production of the electric current that occurs in the brain naturally, using sensitive magnetometers. The array of SQUID tends to be common in the spin exchange relaxation-free, which is investigated for future machines. It is applied in cognitive and perpetual processes of the brain, something that involves the localization of the various regions affected pathologically before the removal of the neurofeedback.

The EEG and MEG signals tend to be derived through the current net effect in the dendrite neuron in synaptic transmission. This is following Maxwell’s equation used in the production of a magnetic field and the field within which it is present. The right-hand rule is used to give rise to the magnetic field that occurs in the axis of the vector component. The magnetic signals emmited by the brain are necessary, including the magnetic field of the eath (Im et al., 2018). Therefore, it is obtained by constructing rooms made of mumetal and aluminum that reduce low and high-frequency noise.

The magnetically shielded room consists of three main layers made of pure aluminum, high-permeability ferromagnetic, composed of molybdenum permalloy. The ferromagnetic layer is usually supplied with sheets in close contact and the composition of the three layers. The magnetic continuity is usually maintained through the overlay strips—the insulation of the washers and the elimination of the radiation from the radiofrequency. The active systems cancel the noise and implement low-noise fluxgate and active systems mounted in the orthogonal orientation. The degaussing and shaking of wires are used in the building of the system.

MEG is a system that has been in development for the past seventy years with the help of modern hardware and computerized algorithm. The direct measurement of the neuronal activity tends to be comparable to the intracranial electrode. This tends to employment positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG), and fMRI.

The strengths consist of the independent geometry relative to EEG except for the situations where ferromagnetic implants exist. The MEG and EEG signals tend to originate neurophysiological processes with important differences. The magnetic fields tend to be less distorted relative to the electric field by the scalp and skull (Im et al., 2018). The EEG is usually sensitive to the radial and tangential components in the detection of the tangential components.

It tends to be sensitive and sensitive to the visible activities to the localization of the disease in an accurate manner. They are therefore sensitive to the extracellular volumes that facilitate the postsynaptic potential. The decadence of the magnetic field tends to be more pronounced relative to electric fields. It is, therefore, more sensitive to the superficial activities that tend to occur in the cortical.

The overarching differences between the PET and fMRI involve the fact that they tend to be induced in various neuronal activities. The high spatial resolution and poor temporal resolution occur in several minutes. Both EEG and MRI can be used in the lesion location; an EEG can be used to separate abnormal and normal cortical functions.

The Four Methodologies of Neuroimaging ppt

References

Caballero-Gaudes, C., & Reynolds, R. C. (2017). Methods for cleaning the BOLD fMRI signal. Neuroimage154, 128-149.

Hari, R., Baillet, S., Barnes, G., Burgess, R., Forss, N., Gross, J., … & Taulu, S. (2018). IFCN-endorsed practical guidelines for clinical magnetoencephalography (MEG). Clinical Neurophysiology, 129(8), 1720-1747.

Im, H. J., Bradshaw, T., Solaiyappan, M., & Cho, S. Y. (2018). Current methods to define metabolic tumor volume in positron emission tomography: which one is better?. Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging52(1), 5-15.

Moran, A., & O’Shea, H. (2020). Motor imagery practice and cognitive processes. Frontiers in psychology11, 394.

Patel, K. K., Spertus, J. A., Chan, P. S., Sperry, B. W., Thompson, R. C., Al Badarin, F., … & Bateman, T. M. (2019). Extent of myocardial ischemia on positron emission tomography and survival benefit with early revascularizationJournal of the American College of Cardiology74(13), 1645-1654.

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