Federalism and Public Policy

Directions: Using the required academic readings and additional academic research, please address the following while adhering to the Discussion Board Rubric:

Identify the constitutional principles of federalism. Select a specific example of federalism from one of the following fields: Economic policy (for example, U.S. allocation of federal grants), Education policy (for example, the implementation of Common Core), Environmental policy (for example, the Clean Air Act), Healthcare policy (for example, the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)) Welfare policy (for example, Medicaid)

Explain this specific example of federalism.

  • Is this specific public policy a federal, state, or local public policy?
  • How does this specific public policy affect the roles of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches within a federal government?
  • Why does this example interest you?
  • How does this example affect you?

Support your analysis with information obtained from the text, the U.S. Constitution, and subsequent federal and state laws. References: National Constitution Center. (n.d.).

Retrieved from

The Constitution of the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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How Native American and European ideas of freedom differ on the eve of contact

The idea of freedom as perceived by the Europeans significantly differs from that of the Native Americans, something that had a significant impact before their contact. The Native American’s notion of freedom was the community’s freedom at large, while the Europeans believed in personal independence. This led to a dispute between the two groups, as the Europeans thought of the Native Americans as savages who had no basic understanding of human rights and personal liberty. In contrast, the Native Americans thought of the Europeans as invading their territory. This paper focuses on the differences between the European and Native Americans ’ perceptions of freedom.

Some Europeans viewed the Native American way of life as the ultimate freedom as they were living life without the government. On the other hand, other Europeans viewed the Native Americans as brutal as they had not to form sophisticated societal structures. Unlike the European settlers, the Native Americans, on the other hand, did not view freedom as the ability to have private possessions or to have personal liberty, something that made it possible for them to work as enslaved people in the European settler’s plantations. In that Native American way of life, personal liberty was closely associated with community kinship and spirituality (Foner).

The European perception of freedom is based on the political struggles of times and Greek literature and philosophy. While the Native Americans viewed liberty as a social or political issue, the Europeans viewed freedom as spiritual. This is due to the insistence on freedom from sin in the Christian Religion. The Europeans, therefore, viewed granting other people freedom as spiritual obedience. The freedom in the European context is therefore based on a social hierarchy with the people in the highest point of the hierarchy been able to take the freedom of those at the bottom. According to the Naïve American point of view, individuals were interdependent and therefore the concept of freedom was impossible to be applied personally (Foner).

Native Americans thought of themselves as individuals and did not agree with the concept of collective will. Their perception of freedom was unbearable according to the European way of life that was very structured and was viewed as savagely. Native American communities gave up their liberties to get kinship, security, and a sense of belonging in their respective community. The Indians’ notion of faith is based on self-determination and autonomy. On the other hand, the Europeans had to give up some of their liberty to another entity, the government, for example, by paying taxes to get other services.

In conclusion, there are significant differences between the European and Native Americans’ notions of view. Theses gave up a certain portion of their liberty with the expectation to get social benefits, while the European thoughts of having freedom as a spiritual quest. The Europeans, therefore, entertained the native American notion about liberty.

The main factors fueling the European age of expansion

The age of discovery and navigation of the European into the New World significantly affected world history. The Vikings landed in North America, becoming the First Europeans on the planet. The history of the western civilization is based on the advanced explores who shared their discoveries with the rest inspiring hope for a better life and wealth creation strategy. For example in the 15th Century, Christophe Columbus moves into the United States, expecting to immerse huge amounts out wealth. This paper looks into the age of expansion in Europe, and the key factors that lead to the phenomenon (Foner).

The factors that learn to the Age of Exploration in Europe can be summed up into three main determinants, namely for national pride and glory, for example, in the French, who looked forward to assimilating the native American into the French Culture. The European Nations also had limited economic resources and too on exploration as a chance to immerse wealth. The religion to play a art as the European missionaries looked to spread the ideas thought, something that would only be achieved through the great voyage. The explorers were also motivated by other interests for example fame, from having discovered something to getting new land (Foner).

In Europe, the English were driven by their desire to control North America, something that had a significant impact on the power dynamics in Europe. Therefore, the explores were sent in search for food, natural resources, and even trading opportunities. The colonies in North America presented a good source for raw material, for the European industries, and a market for the finished good. Therefore the early exploration and dominance of new land was an invaluable resource to Britain as well as other countries. The controlling New World was pivotal to the power dynamics in the continent.

The Portuguese o the other hand had the advantage of their geographical location. The country heavily depends on the Atlantic Ocean as the main medium of transport. Having been able to control Ceuta, and African City, the French had the advantage of being the first European to explore Africa. Portugal also had information about the purpose of the voyage. Another contributing factor was the Portuguese ability to tap and manage resource. Spain was motivated to explore the new land due to their ease of accessing the direct route to the New Land, that is North America and Africa. The French on the other hand were interested in spreading their ideas that include Christianity and the French culture in general.

The rise of slave trade in Africa, led to the availability to affordable labor for the plantation owners. This made the demand for plantation land very important, something that made exported to be an incentivized approach. The Transatlantic trade presented the need for raw materials for European industries, thus the Europeans needed a new land to obtain the resource, incentivizing the exploration of new land. The competition between Protestantism and Catholicism also amplified the exploitation as each group looked forward to out doing the other.

In conclusion, it is clear that the Europeans explored new land throughout the Planet with the aim of spreading their religion which is Christianity. The missionaries were dedicated to spreading Christianity, something that made them to move to areas where the religion is not significant, and teach the ideas to them. The understanding of the Europeans of the concept of freedom also facilitated their ability to control other population. The accumulation of wealth was also a good motivating for the European Nations to invade the Africa and North America. The Spanish were heavily influence by their interest in trade to go look for trade goods.

How equality became a stronger component of American freedom after the Revolution

Equality led to the struggle Declaration of independence something that is of significant impact to the wellbeing of civilization and the struggle or independence, when the idea that all mean are equal, were conceived. The dream on equality in the American colonies occurred in three levels, namely the conflict over the kind of a nation the United States should be. The struggle for national independence also played a significant impact on the concept of equality, as all nations had to be in control over their territory and destiny. The Americans on the other hand rejected the notion of fixed statues, patronage and privilege (Foner).

The expansion of the political territory of the United States, when the Northern States conquered the Southern states, played a significant effect on the on the perception of the concept of equality in the united states. The men however remained the heads of the family and the wives had to submit to them. The slaves on the other hand could not be afforded freedom as they provided irreplaceable labour to the plantations something the supported world trade and American significance on the global economy, from the 15th Century. The political elite amplified the is due as of freedom by relaying them directly to the citizenry, making them more aware of the ideas.

The Pennsylvania revolution too contributed significantly to the strength of the concept of equality in the United States. The revolution involved a large disorderly crowd that would be considered as inferior. The attacks were made on the property, providing the people from the lower class for example artisans and indenture servants to attack the property owned by the plantation owners, who were from the upper class. The attacked provided an opportunity for the political leadership to spread the ideas of equality and the need for all mean to be treated the same, regardless of their social status, for the benefit of the society at large.

New constitutions in the states play a key role in the promoting the idea of equality in the America, as each states adopted a constitution that had no regard for the aristocracy and ensured that all the citizens had a hence of taking political leadership. The governments were established as a political system or representative democracy, where elected leaders made decisions on behalf of their citizenry. The right to vote too propagates the ideas of equality in the United States. According to john Adams, equality and freedom are mutually exclusive, as a man without property lacks judgment. And the elimination of the property as a factor in life eliminated classism, which would lead to anarchy in the society. Additionally New gave suffrage to its inhabitants, granting them the liberty to vote, but only the white men were considered as inhabitants. The more people were allowed to vote, the more the perception of equality seems to be stronger in the society (Foner).

The causes and significant results of the War of 1812

The Napoleon war and the French Revolution are one of the most conspicuous factors that lead to the instability that caused the War 1812.The constant persistent conflict between the British and French lead to the United States inability to establish trade with both of them. The prosperity of the American shipping however encouraged trade between the United Sates, The French and Spanish Empire. The British on the other hand mock the trade with the claim that free shipping would make commodities free. The war was led by Britain’s attempt to control trade between the United States and other empires worldwide (Foner).

Britain was involved in the Napoleon war in the 19th Century, and the Royal Navy attempted to cut off the supplies to the United States. In contrast, the United States attempted to establish a blockade against the British. Britain, therefore, passed a law that required all the neutral parties to obtain trading licenses before trading with the French or any of their colonies. The Royal Navy thought that the United States eliminate seamen and force them to work on the British’s behalf.

The Royal Navy provoked the United States by using impressment, intending to keep the ship’s crew. Allegedly the Royal Navy Ships transported the United States citizens to be part of the British military. Leopard on the United States Navy seizing four sailors and citizens, which the British government apologized for, but ended up leading to a war. The United States President decided to use economic sanctions against Britain, by banning all imports from Britain though passing of the Embargo Act of 1807. The act ended up affecting the United States more adversely that it did on France and Britain (Foner).

The War of 1812 lead to the withdrawal of the British military and the conquering of the Creeks in the Southern states. It was also established that there be arbitration on any future disputes involving the United States and Canada. The United States emerged victorious, with the North Western regions been under the full control of the British government. Harrison was able to conquer Detroit thus making the United States navy winning over the Royal Navy. Attention was turned on taking over the North, with the British conquering the United States military and burning the White House. The war led to significant conflict between the United States and Britain and the Native Americans and Canadians the struggle to self-governance. The War led to the destruction of the United States’ Federalist Party for being against the war which was deemed as unpatriotic (Foner).

In conclusion, it is clear that the War of 1812 was caused by economic decisions, whereby the United States imposed trade sanctions against Britain. The conflict was ultimately caused by the rivalry between Britain and France due to the earlier conflicts, and the United States been and ally. The United States ended up antagonizing the British. The war lead to the creation of treaties that prevented such conflicts from occurring, and the basis on the modern day civilization (Foner).

Compare and contrast the colonies established by Spain, France and England in the Americas from 1500-1700.

Spain, England, and France were the key players, who struggled to control North America between the 1500 and 1700. The respective governments were driven by different reasons to control the continent and thus they took different approaches to take control. This had a significant effect on the fate of the New World, for example English colonies had relatively more freedom while Spain and France, exacted absolute power on the their colonies due to their autocracy at the time. This resulted to circumstances like the English colonies having more population mas they encouraged immigration. All colonies however, had to pay tribute to their respective governments. Having defeated Spain and France in the Indian and French War, England dominated North America but Spain and France retained their national characteristics. This paper compares and contrasts the English, Spanish and French colonies in their quests to control North America between 1500 and 1700 (Foner).

England, Spain, and France occupied different regions of North America. English colonists started in Massachusetts and Virginia, and began spreading Southwards along the coastline and into the interior. The French Colonies occupied Quebec, Montreal, and Louisiana in 1608, 1642, and late 1600 respectively, and established their trading posts as they explored the St Lawrence Valley. The Spanish on the hand expanded their territory to the South Western region for example New Mexico, California, Florida, St. Augustine and Santa Fe (Foner). These colonists also had different criteria of recruiting the population, For example the English encouraged artisans and farmers to move into their colonies and forced criminals and indentures servants encouraged other nationalities to move into English colonies. The French on the other hand had a more strict approach of selecting immigrants as they only allowed missionaries, traders and Merchants into their and disallowed protestants and peasants from emigrating. The French did not allow immigrants with different nationalities to move into their territory. The Spanish first allowed the missionaries and soldiers, while the traders and farmers were allowed and encouraged to emigrate later (Foner).

The extent of government control on the colonist varied, for example the English government allowed the colonies to form local governments and even collect taxes, with the promise that they remain loyal to the English crown. The Spanish had the colonies on a tighter leash as the crown appointed their governors and viceroys, and the colonies had no right to for their laws as they were to be governed the Spanish King. The French government on the other hand had a direct and exclusive control over the colonies. They were completely subject to the French crown, in that the King has to approve all public gatherings within the French colonies. The colonists could not have representative governments, and has no political right. In terms of religion, the English colonies were ruled by a combination of Catholics and non-Catholics, and most colonies like Pennsylvania allowed tolerance, while some like Massachusetts especially the Puritans, valued autocracy and adhered strictly to Catholicism and strict leadership in religion. The Spanish colonies too strictly adhered to Catholicism and were intolerant of Protestants. The French colonies were controlled by the Catholic Church leadership, even though they Protestantism had become dominant in France since the Mid-seventeenth century. It is therefore clear that there was a similarity in religion in the French, Spanish and English colonies in North America (Foner).

The economic activities in the French, English and Spanish colonies depended on the region of the North American continent that they occupied and the nature of their governance. For example, the English colonies had a diversity of economic activities, as they there was freedom of immigration. These activities include trading, fishing, and farming, thus produced surplus of timber, tobacco, rice, and fish, which were exported, making it the main economic activity. French colonies too depended on agriculture and trade to support their economy, while Spanish colonies were predominantly based on trade, which was controlled by the Spanish military. English colonies had a rapid population growth due to the freedom of immigration that allowed most people to settle. For example between 1627 and 1754, the population of Virginia increased from only one thousand to 1.5 million. The strict immigration policies in French colonies lead to a slow population growth. The French controlled territory and stagnant population for example 5000 settlers in New France, 10000 in Louisiana, and a cumulative 40000 in all of French territory within Canada. The Spanish controlled colonies had a slow population growth rate, due to their heavy presence of the Spanish military in the region and the hostility of the Native American in the region. The three colonists dealt with the Native Americans differently, for example, the English were very friendly to the natives and engage in trade. French colonies too were friendly to the natives, but tried to assimilate them and form alliances against the British military. The Spanish people on the other hand suppressed the native communities by sending missionaries to convert them into Christianity while the military killed and possessed their property (Foner).

The Spanish colonists were considered more civil that that those controlled by the French. In Spanish controlled colonies the natives were taken as slaves and made to work in mines and plantations. The government had established an encomienda, meant to control the Native Americans. The Spanish clergy was keener on destroying the Native American’s religious paraphineria with the claim that it represented Paganism, than in converting them into Christianity. The French on the other hand attempted to permanently settle in North America and coexist and trade alongside the Native Americans. This is because the French had realised that the Native Americans were more productive when there was a peaceful coexistence. They attempted to assimilate them into the French culture and had adopted some of the Native American customs and even clothing. The French and Indian War, is however a case of a dispute between the two groups, for example, when the French interfered in the Huron’s dispute against the Iroquois. This war is however seen as inevitable because, if the French territory was sparsely population, there would have been a war between the Native Americans and the Spanish Settlers. Due to the differences in the governance of the French Spanish and English colonies, the English colonies had the most robust economy, due to the freedom allowed in the region. The Spanish territory was moderately robust in terms of economic activities, and had farming and mining as their main economic activities. The French territories on the other hand were sparsely populated due to the autocracy practiced (Foner).

In conclusion, there is a the manner in which the French, Spanish, and English government treated colonies had an impact on the New World at large. The population in the English colonies increased rapidly which made them more powerful than the French and Spanish colonies. This made the English military to conquer the French and Spanish people, and gain control of North America at large. The ideas of free trade too as propagated in the English controlled territory too increased throughout the period between the 16th and 18th Centuries. This has significantly to the ideas of freedom as perceived in the world today, where there is democracy and capitalism, unlike the alternative, which is autocracy as propagated by the French (Foner).

Work Cited

Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History: Seagull Fourth Edition. Vol. 1. WW Norton & Company, 2013.

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