Target Behavior and Outcome Criteria: Literature Review
Applied Behavioral Analysis Principles and Concepts
Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism is a scientific technique that is also referred to as behavioral engineering that applied an empirical approach whereby operant and respondent conditioning principles are used in changing social significance-related behavior. It required behavioral analysis that may take radical behaviorism and the experimental analysis of the behavior.
This is why applied behavioral analysis is modified to behavior modification, requiring interaction between a behavior and the environment (Bagaiolo et al., 2017). Professionals need to assess the relationship between the target behaviors, refusal behavior, and the environment within which the individual exists in this paper. Social acceptance is developed at the expense of aberrant behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism is described as a standard gold treatment for the behavior. Therefore, ABA is a system for the treatment of people who have autism whereby the desired behavior is taught in a reward and consequence system. Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism required the application of behavioral principles that facilitate the adaption of the target behavior, for example, the elimination of refusal behavior. This is grounded on the fact that acceptable behavior has been taught in the social setting over millennia, thus regulating human behavior in the context of reward and consequences (Kupferstein, 2018).
The advocates point out that its incredible success is based on the fact that it facilitates the achievement of particular behavioral outcomes and thus the wellbeing of the individual. In the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASP), the modified behavioral symptoms are no longer evident, which facilitates the treatment of autism. It is also important to note that the punishment for noncompliance could take the form of the withdrawal of the reward, which motivates the client to strive towards positive behavior.
Application of Applied Behavioral Analysis for Autism
The application of applied behavior analysis for Autism as behavioral engineering can be traced back to Jack Michaels and Teodoro, whereby they related the application of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior to apply the techniques in a psychiatric hospital. People who have intellectual disability and schizophrenia were effectively treated based on the AB principles.
The researcher and faculty at the University of Washington include Montrose Wolf, Todd Risley, Jay Birnbrauer, Bill Hopkins; Sidney W. Bijou applied ABA in the behavioral analysis of children with an intellectual disability (Makrygianni et al., 2018). According to Lovaas, Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism facilitates the coding of the observed behavior along with the pioneering of the antecedents and the consequences with the maintenance of the problematic behavior.
Some of the reinforces of secondary behavior include the teaching of children on how to imitate something that is used as an intervention the reduction of aggression and life-threatening self-injury. Over time behavioral analysis was replaced with a behavioral modification whereby the problematic behavior is replaced after understanding its function.
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Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism tends to be intrinsically attached to the intervention of autism spectrum disorder. Therefore, it is essential to understand the characteristics of ABA, which includes the fact that Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism is applied by focusing on the social significance of the behavior studied. The target behavior has to be practiced and tested based on whether it is more acceptable. Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism is usually behavioral because it is pragmatic, whereby one asks for the most effective manner of achieving behavior.
The verbal descriptions are treated as substitutes for the behavior under description. The behavioral analysis tends to be successful and facilitates the manipulation of the target behavior. This makes it relatively easier to arrange relevant behavior in the research setting. The ethical standards provide the reversal and multiple baseline designs to facilitate the chosen behavior and the intervention. For the intervention to be effective in revealing the changes and interventions applied.
The technological trait of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism facilitates a clear and detailed description with the application of detailed and clear research. The effectiveness of the intervention required a systematic conceptualization of the interventions. ABA is generally applicable in different environments, something that facilitates the formulation of specific behavior. Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism tends to be accountable in demonstrating the effectiveness of the method something they require the success, failure, and ineffectiveness.
The theoretical analysis and the results of ABA tend to be scrutinized and published something that hidden treatment in the metaphysical explanations. Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism tends to be applicable, useful, and intervention facilitates a variety of parents, teachers, and therapists. Optimism tends to be critical in the Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism setting, whereby both the client and the practitioners manipulate the various aspects of the environment.
Reduction of Challenging Behavior
Behavior is the changes in the movements of the organism about the immediate environment. This is a class of responses that depict the interaction between the physical environments in a single instance. The repertoires are the various classes of responses that are available to the individual about the particular situations. Operant conditioning tends to be voluntary and controlled based on the consequences.
Operant conditioning tends to be three-term congruent with stimulus control with the antecedent contingent in the discriminative stimulus. Respondent conditioning tends to be based on innate stimulus relationships referred to as reflexes. Classical conditioning facilitates classical conditioning facilitating the biological significance of the consequences. The environment within which the entire constellation of the environment is in the setting. Therefore the environment includes both the internally and externally occurring events rather than the real physical environment. The stimulus tends to change, affecting the receptor cells of the organism.
Reinforcement in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Reinforcement tends to be the key element of operant conditioning, which facilitates the programs that facilitate behavioral changes. The behaviors close to the stimulus and their respective results are strengthened to increase the frequency of the preferred behavior. The negative reinforcements tend to been weakened, something that ensures that the outcome behavior is positive.
Punishment in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Punishment is a concept that refers to the delivery of the consequences of the negative behavior in the attempt to reduce its frequency in the future. There are three types of punishment response costs, aversive stimuli and the restriction of freedom, which is often termed “time out” (Fisher et al., 2021). These are the unwanted side effects of the negative behavior, which often includes resentment resulting from the punishment.
Extinction in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Extinction is a technical term that refers to the success that comes with the elimination of negative behavior. Extinction comes as a consequence of punishment, after the results of the unwanted side effects. The negative emotions associated with negative behavior tend to motivate the client towards positive behavioral outcomes.
Extinction tends to be a technical term for the discontinuation of the reinforcement of the positive behavior while decreasing the negative behavior. The extinction procedures tend to deem unethical and prohibitive states of the professionals (McClannahan & Krantz, 2019). Extinction procedures tend to be implemented with the utmost care of the respective mental health professionals with the general association with the extinction bursts.
Aggression may also come as a result of emotional response to the variation in the behavior. The relationship between the behavior and antecedent conditioning facilitates the replacing the formulation of the behaviors. The behavior tends to occur frequently in the absence of discriminative operands. The classification system facilitates the verbal behavior hosting communication disorders. Tact tends to be a verbal response that tends to be evoked by a non-verbal antecedent with the maintenance of the generalized condition of the reinforcement (McClannahan & Krantz, 2019). On the other hand, Mand is the behavior controlled with the motivation and the maintenance of the reinforces.
Intraverbals in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Intraverbals tend to be a relevant antecedent stimulus and sharing responses in response to the speaker’s questions. Autoclitic is secondary behaviors while altering the effects of the primary behavior in the quantification of the statement. The behavior can be measured by measuring both the dimensions of the behavior and the quantification. The dimension includes temporal locus, temporal extent, and repeatability. The repeatability of a behavior can be measured in reference to the count, frequency, and celebration.
Temporal extent indicates it occupies the amount of time taken with the duration of the behavior. The temporal locus tends to occur at a particular time when the behavior occurs. Response latency tends to measure the elapsed time between the stimulus and its initiation. The interrespose time, in this case, refers to the time occurring between the consecutive instances as a response—derivative measuring the related in a particular dimension which means that the percentage and trial-to-criterion.
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Methodological Principles in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
One of the methodological principles includes task analysis, a process through which the tasks can be analyses facilitating the consistent parts concerning total task presentation, forward and backward chaining. Task analysis facilitated the organization’s behavior to changing the members. The behavioral scripts tend to emerge in task analysis tends to be conducted with the use of micro-skills.
Task Analysis in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Task analysis tends to be determined with the use of skills that are assessed. Chaining is an Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism methodology whereby the skills are learned in breaking down while making small units for easy learning. The problem behavior can be analyzed in the disruption of the prevention of the problematic behavior.
Dialectical behaviors therapy extensively utilizes the behavior in the chain analysis, unlike philosophical behavioral analysis. Prompts, on the other are cues applied in the encouragement of the desired behavior. The prompts could be categorized into a hierarchy from the most to the least intrusive concerning the controversy, which leads to the fading of verbal behavior (Fisher et al., 2021).
The errors are minimized something that tends to ensure a high level of success, something that tends to be essential in the learning process. In this process, the prompts are faded quickly, depending on the eventual dependence on the prompting. Prompts may take the form of vocal prompts, something that facilitates the vocalization of the words. Visual promotes, on the other hand tend to facilitate the use of visual cues.
Gestural Cues in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
On the other hand, gestural cues tend to be physical gestures. Positional prompts tend to be placed closer to the individual. Fading tends to be the goal that facilitates the mastery of skills in the course of intrusive behavior. Thinning the reinforcement schedule is a methodology that refers to the removal of timing that involves the increased time lag as the reinforcements increase. On the other hand, generalization refers to the expansion of the performance ability of the client, something that takes place with the acquisition of the skill.
The generalization tends to occur across material, place, and people. One the positive behavior is acquired, in a given setting, something that tends to occur in the initial acquisition phase. The behavioral analysis o tends to spend a considerable amount of time in the generalization of the behavior. The process of shaping takes place in the Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism setting, something that involves the modification with the existence of the desired behavior. Over the interaction with the successful maintenance with the replacement hitting in the gentle behavior.
Benefits and Strengths of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Applied Behavioral Analysis is one of the preferable management of autism spectrum disorder in the United States of America. Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism tends to supposed to facilitate the socialization of skills and communication and the prevention of the child. ABA tends to be an operant conditioning methodology that facilitates the changing of consequences of particular behaviors, which facilitates the acceptance of the particular behavior.
Operant Conditioning in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Operant conditioning tends to involve the changing of the punishments as the target behavior. Therapy facilitates the occurrence of the behavior with the design of the consequences for the individual. Over the past forty years, Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism has been used to treat autism by eliminating problematic behavior and promoting the target behavior.
The therapist tends to modify the emotional and social behaviors to boost the child’s aptitude. Furthermore, in this case, the goal involves matching the child’s behaviors with that of their peers. Over time, Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism has facilitated the children with ASO remaining in school with most of their improving their performance over time. Eventually, the parents tend to learn the same techniques they applied at home and ensure that the problematic behaviors are completely eradicated (Sandoval-Norton & Shkedy, 2019).
Therefore, Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism is useful in the treatment of ASP and the reduction of frustrations, and the promotion of better communication. The problematic behavior at times begins to reduce over the progress of the therapy, thus promoting the success of the process. The children can improve their imitation, matching, nonverbal expression, receptive and expressive language.
Limitation of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism also tends to have drawbacks in that people within the autistic spectrum facilitate the improvement of social skills while increasing intellectual abilities and the overall adjustment to the standard way of living. The goal of this approach involves the facilitation of coping mechanisms and the facilitation of society in general.
Therefore the child is forced to change what they think is right based on the response of the people they trust, something that may affect their social interactions in the future. Therefore Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism tends to impair the child’s ability to be themselves, thus taking away their life choices. The conformance to the acceptable behaviors tends to be a weakness in the child’s personality. Parents often tend to worry about the stress they subject their children with ASP while they undergo ABA.
This means the child had to undergo extra hours of training on how to cope with society in addition to their academic routine. They may end up feeling segregated as they undergo an undesirable activity that does not apply to their peers. Researchers have claimed in ASP subject that problematic tends to resolve it as the child interacts with other members of society (Dou et al., 2017).
Therefore it does not guarantee whether individualized programs will improve the individual’s quality of life over the course of their lifetime (Tiura et al., 2017). Conventionally, trying to suit the Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism to the needs of the child does not guarantee the success of the therapy process. The individualized treatment presents the child with the exact care they need throughout their lifetime and not all the clients involved.
Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that occurs over the individual’s lifespan and is manifested within the first three years of the individual life. The main train involved in this disorder is the difficulties in social interaction, whereby the focus on repetitive behaviors is teamed as essential. Despite the fact that the main trait involved in this disorder involves the behavioral aspect, the disorder tends to be heterogeneous in nature in both the presentation and language variability.
Studies have shown that the prevalence of this disorder has improved significantly over the past seven decades. The cause for this surge tends to be unclear, which may facilitate the formulation of a more direct form of treatment. Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism provides a guideline for the ASD intervention, including identifying the stimulus, demonstrating the behaviour, and developing the consequences to resolve the problematic behaviour (Connolly et al., 2017). The ABA-based interventions in the treatment of ASD began in the 1980s, whereby the patients were assigned neurotypical classes, something that was expected to facilitate the collective correction of the alternative behaviors.
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Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Framework in Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism
The antecedent-behavior-consequence framework teaches them skills such as communication, social skills, and imitation of something that affects the procedures and principles. The utilization of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism involves complex social and cognitive rewards in the facilitation of learning and the overall elimination of atypical behavior. In this case, the correct response involves including various forms of reinforces with the use of reinforces and the instructions.
Types of ABA
The different types of ABA applicable in the treatment of ASP include the Discrete Trial Training (DTT), which involves the use of trials that facilitate the teaching of the desired behavior and the necessary responses (Alves et al., 2020). The lessons tend to be broken into various constituents’ parts, with positive reinforcements and the correct behavior.
Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI)
The early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is a form of ABA applicable for ASP-affected children aged between three and five years. This method tends to use very structured teaching methods with social communication and the reduction of atypical behavior. EIBI tends to involve the environment between adults and children, which takes place under the supervision of the trained professionals.
Early Start Denver Model (ESDM)
The early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a form of Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism that is applied between the age of one and two years using play and joint activities that involve the advancement of cognitive, language, and social skills.
Pivotal Response Training (PRT)
The pivotal response training (PRT) tends to aim to increase the child’s motivation, monitor their respective behavior, and initiate communication (Medavarapu et al., 2019). Positive behavioral changes tend to involve the widespread effects of the behaviors. The verbal behavior intervention tends to focus on teaching the communications skills required, especially those of the verbal variety.
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- Kupferstein, H. (2018). Evidence of increased PTSD symptoms in autistics exposed to applied behavior analysis. Advances in Autism.
- Makrygianni, M. K., Gena, A., Katoudi, S., & Galanis, P. (2018). The effectiveness of applied behavior analytic interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A meta-analytic study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 51, 18-31.
- Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., & Roane, H. S. (Eds.). (2021). Handbook of applied behavior analysis. Guilford Publications.
- McClannahan, L. E., & Krantz, P. J. (2019). In search of solutions to prompt dependence: Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules. In environment and behavior (pp. 271-278). Routledge.
- Frye, R. E. (2018). Social skills deficits in autism spectrum disorder: potential biological origins and progress in developing therapeutic agents. CNS drugs, 32(8), 713-734.
- Dou, Y., Yang, X., Li, Z., Wang, S., Zhang, Z., Ye, A. Y., … & Wei, L. (2017). Postzygotic single‐nucleotide mosaicisms contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits and the origin of mutations. Human mutation, 38(8), 1002-1013.
- Connolly, S., Anney, R., Gallagher, L., & Heron, E. A. (2017). A genome-wide investigation into parent-of-origin effects in autism spectrum disorder identifies previously associated genes including SHANK3. European Journal of Human Genetics, 25(2), 234-239.
- Tiura, M., Kim, J., Detmers, D., & Baldi, H. (2017). Predictors of longitudinal ABA treatment outcomes for children with autism: A growth curve analysis. Research in developmental disabilities, 70, 185-197.
- Alves, F. J., De Carvalho, E. A., Aguilar, J., De Brito, L. L., & Bastos, G. S. (2020). Applied behavior analysis for the treatment of autism: A systematic review of assistive technologies. IEEE Access, 8, 118664-118672.
- Medavarapu, S., Marella, L. L., Sangem, A., & Kairam, R. (2019). Where is the evidence? A narrative literature review of the treatment modalities for autism spectrum disorders. Cureus, 11(1).
- Sandoval-Norton, A. H., & Shkedy, G. (2019). How much compliance is too much compliance: Is long-term ABA therapy abuse?. Cogent Psychology, 6(1), 1641258.