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Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography due – at least 4-5 pages AND at least 10 studies to be annotated Hello All, For this Module, please do the following:  1. FIRST write out the article you are annotating with the citation of the article 2. AFTER this, please use the following recommended template/Subtitles:             A. Introduction             B. Summary of the article             C. Evaluation of the article (cite another article – one citation in this assignment is ok)             D. Conclusions and Policy Implications 3. At the “Evaluation” section above, you must cite another article (apart from the one you are annotating). You need to do this at least one time in this assignment. 4. Remember that EVERY assignment in this class must be supported. Please try to follow this if you want to EARN an “A” in this class. I have said this a million times already.                           ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY SAMPLE (this is for one article)   Article:  Hughes, T. (2001). Police officers and civil liability: “the ties that bind”? Policing, 24(2), 240-262. doi:http://dx.doi.org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/13639510110390972 Title: Police liability   Introduction: For module 3 discussion post I am going to discuss the article written by Hughes is 2001. The title of the article is Police officers and civil liability: “the ties that bind” that talks about how officers think about civil liability. Hughes writes about how police try to mitigate lawsuits; research has been done on how police feel about civil liabilities and the outcome of that research.   Summary of article: This article begins by talking about the methods used to control police officers’ behaviors and actions. It is broken down into two different categories which are administrative measures and legal actions. Administrative measures are done inside the department to try to keep officers accountable for their actions. These measures are officer selection, trainings, department policies, and disciplinary process. These are all done to try to protect officers and the department from liability cases. The article discusses how liability cases can be financially difficult for the department and the area it serves. They must use money from their budget to cover these cost and the money comes from the tax payers. There is also the law which tells officers what they legally can and cannot do. The article states that in the 1960’s lawsuits against police started to rise leading to concern for police and their departments. Hughes then talks about a study done in Cincinnati that was conducted to find out how officers felt about civil liability of police and lawsuits against them. In the study the majority officer said they did not have an experience personally with a civil lawsuit, but a large percent of the officers said they did know of an officer that was being sued due to something that happened on the job. In the study about 60% of the officers thought training helps avoid liability cases. The study also showed that the most officers in this study did not believe that police should be subject to civil actions. While this article tells the findings of this study it is done with a wide range of officers with different ages, different amounts of education, gender, and different amount of time on the job.   Evaluation of the article: I found this article very interesting because in the study done most officers said they had not personally been apart of a civil lawsuit but knew someone who was. Those same officers being studied also said they believed officers should not be subject to civil actions. I found it interesting that they would think that no officers should be subject to civil actions. The study is done on a wide range of individuals in the Cincinnati police department, so I felt it was a fair study for that area. I felt that explaining the two methods used to control police officers’ behaviors and actions was very thought out. It is very important to have good administrative practices to protect from liability. “Policy must protect the financial interests of the community based upon potential losses of taxpayer dollars.” (Pipes, Pape, 2001) Liability cases cost law enforcement money, which leads to costing taxpayers. It’s important that law enforcement understands this.   Conclusions and Policy Implications: From reading this article I feel that law enforcement should be a little more concerned about liability issues. I think it very important for the chief of police to have good administrative procedures in place to avoid liability issues. I believe it should be policy for law enforcement to have training in place to understand liability issues and what can happen from them. I also believe there should be training conducted regularly on new polices and rules. When officers understand these and practice correctly there is less of a chance of liability cases. This also leads to more money being put into helping the community instead of protecting the budget in case of a liability case.   References: Hughes, T. (2001). Police officers and civil liability: “the ties that bind”? Policing, 24(2), 240-262. doi:http://dx.doi.org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/13639510110390972 Pipes, C., & Pape, D. (2001). Police pursuits and civil liability. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70(7), 16-21. Retrieved from https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/docview/204178723?accountid=4870

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